• Fadi W. Abdul-Karim
  • Jennifer Brainard
  • Claire W. Michael


This chapter is divided into two sections: gynecologic cytology and nongynecologic cytology. The gynecologic cytology section starts with the Bethesda System then describes each of its components, providing general information on cytological features and differential diagnosis. It also addresses the key elements of HPV testing, ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS) and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) management guidelines. The nongynecologic section provides an overview for the evaluation of cytologic smear, and the key cellular features and patterns. The chapter addresses each of the organ systems/sites, providing the salient cytological features and the differential diagnosis of the main disease entities.


Gynecologic cytology Nongynecologic cytology The Bethesda System ALTS trail HPV testing ASCCP management guidelines Fine needle aspiration Biopsy Cytologic smears Cytologic differential diagnosis 

Suggested Reading

Gynecologic Cytology

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Body Fluids

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Lymph Nodes

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Bone and Soft Tissue

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fadi W. Abdul-Karim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jennifer Brainard
    • 3
  • Claire W. Michael
    • 4
  1. 1.Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  2. 2.University Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Gynecologic PathologyCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  4. 4.Department of PathologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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