Eating Behavior and Weight in Children

Part of the Springer Series on Epidemiology and Public Health book series (SSEH, volume 2)


The idea that eating styles might influence weight is not new. In 1968, Stanley Schachter published a seminal paper proposing the “externality theory” of obesity (Schachter 1968). It described a series of innovative experiments in which the eating behavior of a clinical sample of severely obese individuals was compared with the eating behavior of normal-weight individuals, using a variety of physiological and environmental manipulations. The conclusion was that the obese were more reactive to external cues of food (such as smell or taste) and less responsive to internal physiological sensations related to hunger and satiety, indicating a weakening of normal appetitive controls. In modern environments where highly palatable food is abundant and cheap, high external responsiveness could lead to over-eating and weight gain, especially if it is not buffered by strong satiety sensitivity.


Eating Behavior Overweight Child Emotional Eating Obesity Risk Palatable Food 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Agras, W.S., Kraemer, H.C., Berkowitz, R.I., Korner, A.F., & Hammer, L.D. (1987). Does a vigorous feeding style influence early development of adiposity. Journal of Pediatrics, 110, 799–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agras, W.S., Kraemer, H.C., Berkowitz, R.I., & Hammer, L.D. (1990). Influence of early feeding style on adiposity at 6 years of age. Journal of Pediatrics, 116, 805–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashcroft, J., Semmler, C., Carnell, S., Van Jaarsveld, C., & Wardle, J. (2008). Continuity and stability of eating behaviour traits in children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 985–990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aubert, R., Betoulle, D., Herbeth, B., Siest, G., & Fumeron, F. (2000). 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism is associated with food and alcohol intake in obese people. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 24, 920–924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barkeling, B., Ekman, S., & Rossner, S. (1992). Eating behavior in obese and normal weight 11-year-old children. International Journal of Obesity, 16, 355–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bayol, S.A., Farrington, S.J., & Stickland, N.C. (2007). A maternal ‘junk food’ diet in pregnancy and lactation promotes an exacerbated taste for ‘junk food’ and a greater propensity for obesity in rat offspring. British Journal of Nutrition, 98, 843–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bellinger, L., Lilley, C., & Langley-Evans, S.C. (2004). Prenatal exposure to a maternal low-protein diet programmes a preference for high-fat foods in the young adult rat. British Journal of Nutrition, 92, 513–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bellone, S., Rapa, A., Vivenza, D., Castellino, N., Petri, A., Bellone, J., Me, E., Broglio, F., Prodam, F., Ghigo, E., & Bona, G. (2002). Circulating ghrelin levels as function of gender, pubertal status and adiposity in childhood. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 25, RC13–RC15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bere, E., & Klepp, K.I. (2004). Correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among Norwegian schoolchildren: parental and self-reports. Public Health Nutrition, 7, 991–998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergh, C., Sabin, M., Shield, J., Hellers, G., Zandian, M., Palmberg, K., Olofsson, B., Lindeberg, K., Björnström, M., & Södersten, P. (2008). A framework for the treatment of obesity: early support. In E.M. Blass (Ed.), Obesity: causes, mechanisms and prevention. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  11. Berridge, K.C. (1996). Food reward: brain substrates of wanting and liking. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 20, 1–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berridge, K.C. (2004). Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience. Physiology and Behavior, 81, 179–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Billon, S., Lluch, A., Gueguen, R., Berthier, A.M., Siest, G., & Herbeth, B. (2002). Family resemblance in breakfast energy intake: the Stanislas Family Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56, 1011–1019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Birch, L.L., & Fisher, J.O. (2000). Mothers’ child-feeding practices influence daughters’ eating and weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 1054–1061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Birch, L.L., Zimmerman, S.I., & Hind, H. (1980). The influence of social-affective context on the formation of children’s food preferences. Child Development, 51, 856–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Birch, L.L., Marlin, D.W., & Rotter, J. (1984). Eating as the “means” activity in a contingency: effects on young children’s food preference. Child Development, 55, 431–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Birch, L.L., Fisher, J.O., & Davison KK. (2003). Learning to overeat: maternal use of restrictive feeding practices promotes girls’ eating in the absence of hunger. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78, 215–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bouchard, L., Drapeau, V., Provencher, V., Lemieux, S., Chagnon, Y., Rice, T., Rao, D.C., Vohl, M-C., Tremblay, A., Bouchard, C., & Perusse, L. (2004). Neuromedin beta: a strong candidate gene linking eating behaviors and susceptibility to obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 1478–1486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Braet, C., & Van Strien, T. (1997). Assessment of emotional, externally induced and restrained eating behaviour in nine to twelve-year-old obese and non-obese children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 863–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Breen, F.M., Plomin, R., & Wardle, J. (2006). Heritability of food preferences in young children. Physiology & Behavior, 88, 443–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brink, P.J., Ferguson, K., & Sharma, A. (1999). Childhood memories about food: the Successful Dieters Project. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 12, 17–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bruce, A.S., Holsen, L.M., Chambers, R.J., Martin, L.E., Brooks, W.M., Zarcone, J.R., Butler, M.G., & Savage, C.R. (2010). Obese children show hyperactivation to food pictures in brain networks linked to motivation, reward and cognitive control. International Journal of Obesity, 34, 1494–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bruch, C.H. (1964). Psychological aspects of overeating and obesity. Psychosomatics, 5, 269–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Butte, N.F., Cai, G., Cole, S.A., Wilson, T.A., Fisher, J.O., Zakeri, I.F., Ellis, K.J., & Comuzzie, A.G. (2007). Metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children: the Viva la Familia Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 1478–1485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Caccialanza, R., Nicholls, D., Cena, H., Maccarini, L., Rezzani, C., Antonioli, L., Dieli, S., & Roggi, C. (2004). Validation of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire parent version (DEBQ-P) in the Italian population: a screening tool to detect differences in eating behaviour among obese, overweight and normal-weight preadolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 1217–1222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cai, G., Cole, S.A., Bastarrachea, R.A., MacCluer, J.W., Blangero, J., & Comuzzie AG. (2004). Quantitative trait locus determining dietary macronutrient intakes is located on human chromosome 2p22. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 1410–1414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Campbell, K.J., Crawford, D.A., & Ball, K. (2006). Family food environment and dietary behaviors likely to promote fatness in 5-6 year-old children. International Journal of Obesity, 30, 1272–1280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carnell, S., & Wardle, J. (2007). Measuring behavioural susceptibility to obesity: validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Appetite, 48, 104–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carnell, S., & Wardle, J. (2008). Appetite and adiposity in children: evidence for a behavioral susceptibility theory of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88, 22–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Carnell, S., Haworth, C.M., Plomin, R., & Wardle, J. (2008). Genetic influence on appetite in children. International Journal of Obesity, 32, 1468–1473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Carruth, B.R., Skinner, J., Houck, K., Moran, J., Coletta, F., & Ott, D. (1998). The phenomenon of “picky eater”: a behavioral marker in eating patterns of toddlers. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 17, 180–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Catalano, P.M., Thomas, A., Huston-Presley, L., & Amini, S.B. (2007). Phenotype of infants of mothers with gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care, 30, 156–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cecil, J.E., Palmer, C.N., Wrieden, W., Murrie, I., Bolton-Smith, C., Watt, P., Wallis, D.J., & Hetherington, M.M. (2005). Energy intakes of children after preloads: adjustment, not compensation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, 302–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cecil, J.E., Tavendale, R., Watt, P., Hetherington, M.M., & Palmer, C. (2008). An obesity-associated FTO gene variant and increased energy intake in children. New England Journal of Medicine, 359, 2558–2566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cha, S.W., Choi, S.M., Kim, K.S., Park, B.L., Kim, J.R., Kim, J.Y., & Shin, H.D. (2008). Replication of genetic effects of FTO polymorphisms on BMI in a Korean population. Obesity, 16, 2187–2189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chang, Y.C., Liu, P.H., Lee, W.J., Chang, T-J., Jiang, Y-D., Li, H-Y., Kuo, S-S., Lee, K-C., & Chuang, L-M. (2008). Common variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene confers risk of obesity and modulates BMI in the Chinese population. Diabetes, 57, 2245–2252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chaudhri, O.B., Field, B.C., & Bloom, S.R. (2008). Gastrointestinal satiety signals. International Journal of Obesity, 32, 28–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Choquette, A.C., Lemieux, S., Tremblay, A., Chagnon, Y.C., Bouchard, C., Vohl, M-C., & Perusse, L. (2008). Evidence of a quantitative trait locus for energy and macronutrient intakes on chromosome 3q27.3: the Quebec Family Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88, 1142–1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Collaku, A., Rankinen, T., Rice, T., Leon, A.S., Rao, D.C., Skinner, J.S., Wilmore, J.H., & Bouchard, C. (2004). A genome-wide linkage scan for dietary energy and nutrient intakes: the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79, 881–886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cooke, L. (2007). The importance of exposure for healthy eating in childhood: a review. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 20, 294–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cooke, L., Wardle, J., & Gibson, E.L. (2003). Relationship between parental report of food neophobia and everyday food consumption in 2-6-year-old children. Appetite, 41, 205–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cooke, L.J., Wardle, J., Gibson, E.L., Sapochnik, M., Sheiham, A., & Lawson, M. (2004). Demographic, familial and trait predictors of fruit and vegetable consumption by pre-school children. Public Health Nutrition, 7, 295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cooke, L.J., Haworth, C., & Wardle, J. (2007). Genetic and environmental influences on children’s food neophobia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86, 428–433.Google Scholar
  44. Corella, D., Arnett, D.K., Tsai, M.Y., Kabagambe, E.K., Peacock, J.M., Hixson, J.E., Straka, R.J., Province, M., Lai, C-Q., Parnell, L.D., Borecki, I., & Ordovas, J.M. (2007). The −256T>C polymorphism in the apolipoprotein A-II gene promoter is associated with body mass index and food intake in the genetics of lipid lowering drugs and diet network study. Clinical Chemistry, 53, 1144–1152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Curhan, G.C., Chertow, G.M., Willett, W.C., Spiegelman, D., Colditz, G.A., Manson, J.E., Speizer, F.E., & Stampfer, M.J. (1996). Birth weight and adult hypertension and obesity in women. Circulation, 94, 1310–1315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Cutting, T.M., Fisher, J.O., Grimm-Thomas, K., & Birch, L.L. (1999). Like mother, like daughter: familial patterns of overweight are mediated by mothers’ dietary disinhibition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 608–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Davidson, M.C., Thomas, K.M., & Casey, B.J. (2003). Imaging the developing brain with fMRI. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 9, 161–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. de Castro, J.M. (1993). Independence of genetic influences on body size, daily intake, and meal patterns of humans. Physiology and Behavior, 54, 633–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. de Castro, J.M. (1999a). Behavioral genetics of food intake regulation in free-living humans. Nutrition, 15, 550–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. de Castro, J.M. (1999b). Inheritance of premeal stomach content influences on eating and drinking in free living humans. Physiology and Behavior, 66, 223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. de Castro, JM. (1999c). Heritability of hunger relationships with food intake in free-living humans. Physiology and Behavior, 67, 249–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. de Castro, J.M. (2001a). Palatability and intake relationships in free-living humans: the influence of heredity. Nutrition Research, 21, 935–945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. de Castro, J.M. (2001b). Heritability of diurnal changes in food intake in free-living humans. Nutrition, 17, 713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. de Castro, J.M. (2006). Heredity influences the dietary energy density of free-living humans. Physiology and Behavior, 87, 192–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. de Castro, J.M., & Lilenfeld, L. (2005). Influence of heredity on dietary restraint, disinhibition, and perceived hunger in humans. Nutrition, 21, 446–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. de Lauzon, B., Romon, M., Deschamps, V., Lafay, L., Borys, J-M., Karlsson, J., Ducimetière, P., & Charles, M.A. (2004). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 is able to distinguish among different eating patterns in a general population 1. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 2372–2380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dina, C., Meyre, D., Gallina, S., Durand, E., Korner, A., Jacobson, P., Carlsson, L.M.S., Kiess, W., Vatin, V., Lecoeur, C., Delplanque, J., Vaillant, E., Pattou, F., Ruiz, J., Weill, J., Levy-Marchal, C., Horber, F., Potoczna, N., Hercberg, S., Le Stunff, C., Bougneres, P., Kovacs, P., Marre, M., Balkau, B., Cauchi, S., Chevre, J-C., & Froguel, P. (2007). Variation in FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesity. Nature Genetics, 39, 724–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Drabman, R.S., Cordua, G.D., Hammer, D., Jarvie, G.J., & Horton, W. (1979). Developmental-trends in eating rates of normal and overweight preschool-children. Child Development, 50, 211–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Drayna, D., Coon, H., Kim, U.K., Elsner, T., Cromer, K., Otterud, B., Baird, L., Peiffer, A.P., & Leppert, M. (2003). Genetic analysis of a complex trait in the Utah Genetic Reference Project: a major locus for PTC taste ability on chromosome 7q and a secondary locus on chromosome 16p. Human Genetics, 112, 567–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Druce, M., & Bloom, S.R. (2006). The regulation of appetite. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91, 183–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Drucker, R.R., Hammer, L.D., Agras, W.S., & Bryson, S. (1999). Can mothers influence their child’s eating behavior? Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics, 20, 88–92.Google Scholar
  62. Eidelman, A.I., & Samueloff, A. (2002). The pathophysiology of the fetus of the diabetic mother. Seminars in Perinatology, 26, 232–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Eny, K.M., Wolever, T.M., Fontaine-Bisson, B., & El-Sohemy, A. (2008). Genetic variant in the glucose transporter type 2 is associated with higher intakes of sugars in two distinct populations. Physiological Genomics, 33, 355–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Epstein, S. (1983). Aggregation and beyond: some basic issues on the prediction of behavior. Journal of Personality, 51, 360–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Epstein, L.H., Parker, L., Mccoy, J.F., & Mcgee, G. (1976). Descriptive analysis of eating regulation in obese and nonobese children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 407–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Epstein, L.H., Wright, S.M., Paluch, R.A., Leddy, J.J., Hawk, L.W., Jaroni, J.L., Saad, F.G., Crystal-Mansour, S., Shields, P.G., & Lerman, C. (2004). Relation between food reinforcement and dopamine genotypes and its effect on food intake in smokers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 82–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fabsitz, R.R., Garrison, R.J., Feinleib, M., & Hjortland, M. (1978). A twin analysis of dietary intake: evidence for a need to control for possible environmental differences in MZ and DZ twins. Behavior Genetics, 8, 15–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Faith, M.S., Rha, S.S., Neale, M.C., & Allison, D.B. (1999). Evidence for genetic influences on human energy intake: results from a twin study using measured observations. Behavior Genetics, 29, 145–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Faith, M.S., Keller, K.L., Johnson, S.L., Pietrobelli, A., Matz, P.E., Must, S., Jorge, M.A., Cooperberg, J., Heymsfield, S.B., & Allison, D.B. (2004). Familial aggregation of energy intake in children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79, 844–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Faith, M.S., Berkowitz, R.I., Stallings, V.A., Kerns, J., Storey, M., & Stunkard, A.J. (2006). Eating in the absence of hunger: a genetic marker for childhood obesity in prepubertal boys? Obesity, 14, 131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Faith, M.S., Rhea, S.A., Corley, R.P., & Hewitt, J.K. (2008). Genetic and shared environmental influences on children’s 24-h food and beverage intake: sex differences at age 7 y. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 903–911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fall, C.H., Osmond, C., Barker, D.J., Clark, P.M.S., Hales, C.N., Stirling, Y., & Meade, T.W. (1995). Fetal and infant growth and cardiovascular risk factors in women. British Medical Journal, 310, 428–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Fieldstone, A., Zipf, W.B., Schwartz, H.C., & Berntson, G.G. (1997). Food preferences in Prader–Willi syndrome, normal weight and obese controls. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 21, 1046–1052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fisher, J.O., & Birch, L.L. (1995). Fat preferences and fat consumption of 3- to 5-year-old children are related to parental adiposity. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 95, 759–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Fisher, J.O., & Birch, L.L. (1999a). Restricting access to foods and children’s eating. Appetite, 32, 405–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fisher, J.O., & Birch, L.L. (1999b). Restricting access to palatable foods affects children’s behavioral response, food selection, and intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 1264–1272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Fisher, J.O., & Birch, L.L. (2000). Parents’ restrictive feeding practices are associated with young girls’ negative self-evaluation of eating. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 100, 1341–1346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fisher, J.O., & Birch, L.L. (2002). Eating in the absence of hunger and overweight in girls from 5 to 7 y of age. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76, 226–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Fisher, J.O., Cai, G.W., Jaramillo, S.J., Cole, S.A., Comuzzie, A.G., & Butte, N.F. (2007). Heritability of hyperphagic eating behavior and appetite-related hormones among Hispanic children. Obesity, 15, 1484–1495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Francis, L.A., & Birch, L.L. (2005). Maternal weight status modulates the effects of restriction on daughters’ eating and weight. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 29, 942–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Francis, L.A., Ventura, A.K., Marini, M., & Birch, L.L. (2007). Parent overweight predicts daughters’ increase in BMI and disinhibited overeating from 5 to 13 years. Obesity, 15, 1544–1553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Frayling, T.M., Timpson, N.J., Weedon, M.N., Zeggini, E., Freathy, R.M., Lindgren, C.M., Perry, J.R.B., Elliott, K.S., Lango, H., Rayner, N.W., Shields, B., Harries, L.W., Barrett, J.C., Ellard, S., Groves, C.J., Knight, B., Patch, A-M., Ness, A.R., Ebrahim, S., Lawlor, D.A., Ring, S.M., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Jarvelin, M-R., Sovio, U., Bennett, A.J., Melzer, D., Ferrucci, L., Loos, R.J.F., Barroso, I., Wareham, N.J., Karpe, F., Owen, K.R., Cardon, L.R., Walker, M., Hitman, G.A., Palmer, C.N.A., Doney, A.S.F., Morris, A.D., Davey Smith, G., Hattersley, A.T., & McCarthy, M.I. (2007). A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science, 316, 889–894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Galloway, A.T., Fiorito, L., Lee, Y., & Birch, L.L. (2005). Parental pressure, dietary patterns, and weight status among girls who are “picky eaters.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105, 541–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gerken, T., Girard, C.A., Tung, Y., Webby, C.J., Saudek, V., Hewitson, K.S., Yeo, G.S.H., McDonaugh, M.A., Cunliffe, S., McNeill, L.A., Galvanovskis, J., Rorsman, P., Robins, P., Prieur, X., Coll, A.P., Ma, M., Jovanovic, Z., Farooqi, I.S., Sedgwick, B., Barroso, I., Lindahl, T., Ponting, C.P., Ashcroft, F.M., O’Rahilly, S., & Schofield, C.J. (2007). The obesity-associated FTO gene encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent nucleic acid demethylase. Science, 318, 1469–1472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gillman, M.W., Rifas-Shiman, S.L., Camargo, C.A., Jr., Berkey, C.S., Frazier, A.L., Rockett, H.R.H., Field, A.E., & Colditz, G.A. (2001). Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2461–2467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gluckman, P.D., & Hanson, M.A. (2008). Developmental and epigenetic pathways to obesity: an evolutionary perspective. International Journal of Obesity, 32, 62–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Grattan, D.R. (2008). Fetal programming from maternal obesity: eating too much for two? Endocrinology, 149, 5345–5347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gunderson, E.P., Tsai, A.L., Selby, J.V., Caan, B., Mayer-Davis, E.J., & Risch, N. (2006). Twins of mistaken zygosity (TOMZ): evidence for genetic contributions to dietary patterns and physiologic traits. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 540–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Guss, J.L., & Kissileff, H.R. (2000). Microstructural analyses of human ingestive patterns: from description to mechanistic hypotheses. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 261–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hakanen, M., Raitakari, O.T., Lehtimaki, T., Peltonen, N., Pahkala, K., Sillanmaki, L., Lagstrom, H., Viikari, J., Simell, O., & Ronnemaa, T. (2009). FTO genotype is associated with Body Mass Index after the age of 7 years but not with energy intake or leisure-time physical activity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94(4), 1281–1287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Haqq, A.M., Farooqi, I.S., O’Rahilly, S., Stadler, D.D., Rosenfeld, R.G., Pratt, K.L., LaFranchi, S.H., & Purnell, J.Q. (2003). Serum ghrelin levels are inversely correlated with body mass index, age, and insulin concentrations in normal children and are markedly increased in Prader–Willi syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88, 174–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Harder, T., Bergmann, R., Kallischnigg, G., & Plagemann, A. (2005). Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 162, 397–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Harris, G. (1993). Feeding problems and their treatment. In S.T. James, I. Roberts, G. Harris & D.J. Messer (Eds.), Infant crying, feeding and sleeping: development, problems and treatments. The developing body and mind (pp. 118–132). London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  94. Heinig, M.J., Nommsen, L.A., Peerson, J.M., Lonnerdal, B., & Dewey, K.G. (1993). Energy and protein intakes of breast-fed and formula-fed infants during the first year of life and their association with growth velocity: the DARLING Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 152–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Heller, R.F., O’Connell, D.L., Roberts, D.C., Allen, J.R., Knapp, J.C., Steele, P.L., & Silove, D. (1988). Lifestyle factors in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Genetic Epidemiology, 5, 311–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hendy, H.M., Williams, K.E., Camise, T.S., Alderman, S., Ivy, J., & Reed, J. (2007). Overweight and average-weight children equally responsive to “Kids Choice Program” to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Appetite, 49, 683–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Herbeth, B., Aubry, E., Fumeron, F., Aubert, R., Cailotto, F., Siest, G., & Visvikis-Siest, S. (2005). Polymorphism of the 5-HT2A receptor gene and food intakes in children and adolescents: the Stanislas Family Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, 467–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hill, J.O., Lin, D., Yakubu, F., & Peters, J.C. (1992). Development of dietary obesity in rats: influence of amount and composition of dietary fat. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 16, 321–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Hill, A.J., Draper, E., & Stack, J. (1994). A weight on children’s minds: body shape dissatisfactions at 9-years old. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 18, 383–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hill, J.O., Wyatt, H.R., Reed, G.W., & Peters, J.C. (2003). Obesity and the environment: where do we go from here? Science, 299, 853–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hill, C., Llewellyn, C.H., Saxton, J., Webber, L., Semmler, C., Carnell, S., van Jaarsveld, C.H.M., Boniface, D., & Wardle, J. (2008). Adiposity and ‘eating in the absence of hunger’ in children. International Journal of Obesity, 32, 1499–1505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hill, C., Wardle, J., & Cooke, L. (2009). Adiposity is not associated with children’s reported liking for selected foods. Appetite, 52(3), 603–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hill, C., Saxton, J., Webber, L., Blundell, J., & Wardle, J. (2009). The relative reinforcing value of food predicts weight gain in a longitudinal study of 7-10-y-old children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90, 276–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hillier, T.A., Pedula, K.L., Schmidt, M.M., Mullen, J.A., Charles, M.A., & Pettitt, D.J. (2007). Childhood obesity and metabolic imprinting: the ongoing effects of maternal hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care, 30, 2287–2292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Holsen, L.M., Zarcone, J.R., Brooks, W.M., Butler, M.G., Thompson, T.I., Ahluwalia, J.S., Nollen, N.L., & Savage, C.R. (2006). Neural mechanisms underlying hyperphagia in Prader–Willi syndrome. Obesity, 14, 1028–1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Horne, P.J., Lowe, C.F., Fleming, P.F., & Dowey, A.J. (1995). An effective procedure for changing food preferences in 5-7-year-old children. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 54, 441–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Horne, P.J., Tapper, K., Lowe, C.F., Hardman, C.A., Jackson, M.C., & Woolner, J. (2004). Increasing children’s fruit and vegetable consumption: a peer-modelling and rewards-based intervention. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 1649–1660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Horvath, T.L., Diano, S., Sotonyi, P., Heiman, M., & Tschop, M. (2001). Minireview: ghrelin and the regulation of energy balance – a hypothalamic perspective. Endocrinology, 142, 4163–4169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Jacobi, C., Agras, W.S., Bryson, S., & Hammer, L.D. (2003). Behavioral validation, precursors, and concomitants of picky eating in childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 76–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. James, R.J., Drewett, R.F., & Cheetham, T.D. (2004). Low cord ghrelin levels in term infants are associated with slow weight gain over the first 3 months of life. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 3847–3850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. James, R.J., James, A., Drewett, R.F., & Cheetham, T.D. (2007). Milk intake and feeding behavior in the first week of life and its relationship to cord blood ghrelin, leptin, and insulin concentrations. Pediatric Research, 62, 695–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Jansen, A., Theunissen, N., Slechten, K., Nederkoorn, C., Boon, B., Mulkens, S., & Roefs, A. (2003). Overweight children overeat after exposure to food cues. Eating Behaviors, 4, 197–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Jansen, E., Mulkens, S., & Jansen, A. (2007). Do not eat the red food!: prohibition of snacks leads to their relatively higher consumption in children. Appetite, 49, 572–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Jansen, E., Mulkens, S., Emond, Y., & Jansen, A. (2008). From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty. Restriction of fruit and sweets intake leads to increased fruit and sweets consumption in children. Appetite, 51, 570–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Johnson, S.L. (2000). Improving preschoolers’ self-regulation of energy intake. Pediatrics, 106, 1429–1435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Johnson, S.L., & Birch, L.L. (1994). Parents’ and children’s adiposity and eating style. Pediatrics, 94, 653–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Johnson, L., Van Jaarsveld, C., Emmett, P.M., Rogers, I.S., Ness, A.R., Hattersley, A.T., Timpson, N.J., Davey Smith, G., & Jebb, S.A. (2009) Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants. PLoS ONE, 4, e4594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kaplan, H.I., & Kaplan, H.S. (1957). The psychosomatic concept of obesity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 16, 305–308.Google Scholar
  119. Kensara, O.A., Wootton, S.A., Phillips, D.I., Patel, M., Jackson, A.A., & Elia, M. (2005). Fetal programming of body composition: relation between birth weight and body composition measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric methods in older Englishmen. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, 980–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Keski-Rahkonen, A., Viken, R.J., Kaprio, J., Rissanen, A., & Rose, R.J. (2004). Genetic and environmental factors in breakfast eating patterns. Behavior Genetics, 34(5), 503–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kim, U.K., Jorgenson, E., Coon, H., Leppert, M., Risch, N., & Drayna, D. (2003). Positional cloning of the human quantitative trait locus underlying taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide. Science, 299, 1221–1225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Klesges, R.C., Coates, T.J., Brown, G., Sturgeon-Tillisch, J., Moldenhauer-Klesges, L.M., Holzer, B., Woolfrey, J., & Vollmer, J. (1983). Parental influences on children’s eating behavior and relative weight. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 371–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Klesges, R.C., Malott, J.M., Boschee, P.F., & Weber, J.M. (1986). The effects of parental influences on childrens food-intake, physical-activity, and relative weight. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 335–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Koeppen-Schomerus, G., Wardle, J., & Plomin, R. (2001). A genetic analysis of weight and overweight in 4-year-old twin pairs. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 25, 838–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kroller, K., & Warschburger, P. (2008). Associations between maternal feeding style and food intake of children with a higher risk for overweight. Appetite, 51, 166–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Laessle, R.G., Uhl, H., & Lindel, B. (2001). Parental influences on eating behavior in obese and nonobese preadolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 30, 447–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Lappalainen, R., & Epstein, L.H. (1990). A behavioral economics analysis of food choice in humans. Appetite, 14, 81–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Lee, Y., Mitchell, D.C., Smiciklas-Wright, H., & Birch, L.L. (2001). Diet quality, nutrient intake, weight status, and feeding environments of girls meeting or exceeding recommendations for total dietary fat of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics, 107, 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lindgren, A.C., Barkeling, B., Hagg, A., Ritzen, E.M., Marcus, C., & Rossner, S. (2000). Eating behavior in Prader–Willi syndrome, normal weight, and obese control groups. Journal of Pediatrics, 137, 50–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Llewellyn, C.H., van Jaarsveld, C.H., Boniface, D., Carnell, S., & Wardle, J. (2008). Eating rate is a heritable phenotype related to weight in children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88, 1560–1566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Lluch, A., Herbeth, B., Mejean, L., & Siest, G. (2000). Dietary intakes, eating style and overweight in the Stanislas Family Study. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 24, 1493–1499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Lomenick, J.P., Clasey, J.L., & Anderson, J.W. (2008). Meal-related changes in Grehlin, Peptide YY, and appetite in normal weight and overweight children. Obesity, 16, 547–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Loos, R.J., & Bouchard, C. (2008). FTO: the first gene contributing to common forms of human obesity. Obesity Reviews, 9, 246–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Loos, R.J., Rankinen, T., Rice, T., Rao, D.C., Leon, A.S., Skinner, J.S., Bouchard, C., & Argyropoulos, G. (2005). Two ethnic-specific polymorphisms in the human Agouti-related protein gene are associated with macronutrient intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, 1097–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Lowe, C.F., Horne, P.J., Tapper, K., Bowdery, M., & Egerton, C. (2004). Effects of a peer modelling and rewards-based intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 510–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Maes, H.H., Neale, M.C., & Eaves, L.J. (1997). Genetic and environmental factors in relative body weight and human adiposity. Behavioral Genetics, 27, 325–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Malis, C., Rasmussen, E.L., Poulsen, P., Petersen, I., Christensen, K., Beck-Nielsen, H., Astrup, A., & Vaag, A.A. (2005). Total and regional fat distribution is strongly influenced by genetic factors in young and elderly twins. Obesity Research, 13, 2139–2145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Mantzoros, C.S., Rifas-Shiman, S.L., Williams, C.J., Fargnoli, J.L., Kelesidis, T., & Gillman, M.W. (2009). Cord blood leptin and adiponectin as predictors of adiposity in children at 3 years of age: a prospective cohort study. Pediatrics, 123, 682–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. McKenzie, T.L., Sallis, J.F., Nader, P.R., Patterson, T.L., Elder, J.P., Berry, C.C., Rupp, J.W., Atkins, C.J., Buono, M.J., & Nelson, J.A. (1991). BEACHES: an observational system for assessing children’s eating and physical activity behaviors and associated events. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 141–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. McMillen, I.C., & Robinson, J.S. (2005). Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming. Physiological Reviews, 85, 571–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. McMillen, I.C., Adam, C.L., & Muhlhausler, B.S. (2005). Early origins of obesity: programming the appetite regulatory system. Journal of Physiology, 565, 9–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Mela, D.J. (2001). Determinants of food choice: relationships with obesity and weight control. Obesity Research, 9, 249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Mennella, J.A., Pepino, Y., & Reed, D.R. (2005). Genetic and environmental determinants of bitter perception and sweet preferences. Pediatrics, 115, 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Meyer, J.E., & Pudel, V. (1972). Experimental studies on food-intake in obese and normal weight subjects. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 16, 305–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Millstein, R.M. (1980). Responsiveness of newborn infants of overweight and normal weight parents. Appetite, 1, 65–74.Google Scholar
  146. Mitchell, B.D., Rainwater, D.L., Hsueh, W.C., Kennedy, A.J., Stern, M.P., & MacCluer, J.W. (2003). Familial aggregation of nutrient intake and physical activity: results from the San Antonio Family Heart Study. Annals of Epidemiology, 13, 128–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Moens, E., & Braet, C. (2007). Predictors of disinhibited eating in children with and without overweight. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1357–1368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Montgomery, C., Jackson, D.M., Kelly, L.A., & Reilly, J.J. (2006). Parental feeding style, energy intake and weight status in young Scottish children. British Journal of Nutrition, 96, 1149–1153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Neale, B.M., Mazzeo, S.E., & Bulik, C.M. (2003). A twin study of dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger: an examination of the eating inventory (three factor eating questionnaire). Twin Research, 6, 471–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Sherwood, N.E., French, S.A., & Jeffery, R.W. (1999). Weight control behaviors among adult men and women: cause for concern? Obesity Research, 7, 179–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Newman, J., & Taylor, A. (1992). Effect of a means-end contingency on young children’s food preferences. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 53, 200–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Ong, K.K., Ahmed, M.L., Sherriff, A., Woods, K.A., Watts, A., Golding, J., & Dunger, D.B. (1999). Cord blood leptin is associated with size at birth and predicts infancy weight gain in humans. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84, 1145–1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Owen, C.G., Martin, R.M., Whincup, P.H., Smith, G.D., & Cook, D.G. (2005). Effect of infant feeding on the risk of obesity across the life course: a quantitative review of published evidence. Pediatrics, 115, 1367–1377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Perusse, L., Tremblay, A., Leblanc, C., Cloninger, C.R., Reich, T., Rice, J., & Bouchard, C. (1988). Familial resemblance in energy intake: contribution of genetic and environmental factors. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47, 629–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Plomin, R., DeFries, J.C., McClearn, G.E., & McGuffin, P. (2008). Behavioral genetics. New York: Worth Publishers.Google Scholar
  156. Provencher, V., Drapeau, V., Tremblay, A., Despres, J.P., Bouchard, C., & Lemieux, S. (2004). Eating behaviours, dietary profile and body composition according to dieting history in men and women of the Quebec Family Study. British Journal of Nutrition, 91, 997–1004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Provencher, V., Perusse, L., Bouchard, L., Drapeau, V., Bouchard, C., Rice, T., Rao, D.C., Tremblay, A., Despres, J-P., & Lemieux, S. (2005). Familial resemblance in eating behaviors in men and women from the Quebec Family Study. Obesity Research, 13, 1624–1629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rankinen, T., Zuberi, A., Chagnon, Y.C., Weisnagel, S.J., Argyropoulos, G., Walts, B., Perusse, L., & Bouchard, C. (2006). The human obesity gene map: the 2005 update. Obesity, 14, 529–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Ravelli, A.C., Van der Meulen, J.H., Osmond, C., Barker, D.J., & Bleker, O.P. (1999). Obesity at the age of 50 y in men and women exposed to famine prenatally. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 811–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Raynor, H.A., Polley, B.A., Wing, R.R., & Jeffery, R.R. (2004). Is dietary fat intake related to liking or household availability of high-and low-fat foods? Obesity Research, 12, 816–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Ricketts, C.D. (1997). Fat preferences, dietary fat intake and body composition in children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51, 778–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Rodin, J., & Slochower, J. (1976). Externality in the nonobese: effects of environmental responsiveness on weight. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 338–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Roth, C.L., Enriori, P.J., Harz, K., Woelfle, J., Cowley, M.A., & Reinehr, T. (2005). Peptide YY is a regulator of energy homeostasis in obese children before and after weight loss. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90, 6386–6391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rydell, A.M., Dahl, M., & Sundelin, C. (1995). Characteristics of school children who are choosy eaters. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 156, 217–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Samuelsson, A.M., Matthews, P.A., Argenton, M., Christie, M.R., McConnell, J.M., Jansen, E.H.J.M., Piersma, A.H., Ozanne, S.E., Fernandez Twinn, D., Remacle, C., Rowlerson, A., Poston, L., & Taylor, P.D. (2008). Diet-induced obesity in female mice leads to offspring hyperphagia, adiposity, hypertension, and insulin resistance: a novel murine model of developmental programming. Hypertension, 51, 383–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Saunders, C.L., Chiodini, B.D., Sham, P., Lewis, C.M., Abkevich, V., Adeyemo, A.A., de Andrade, M., Arya, R., Berenson, G.S., Blangero, J., Boehnke, M., Borecki, I.B., Chagnon, Y.C., Chen, W., Comuzzie, A.G., Deng, H-W., Duggirala, R., Feitosa, M.F., Froguel, P., Hanson, R.L., Hebebrand, J., Huezo-Dias, P., Kissebah, A.H., Li, W., Luke, A., Martin, L.J., Nash, M., Ohman, M., Palmer, L.J., Peltonen, L., Perola, M., Price, R.A., Redline, S., Srinivasan, S.R., Stern, M.P., Stone, S., Stringham, H., Turner, S., Wijmenga, C., & Collier, D.A. (2007). Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies in BMI and obesity. Obesity, 15, 2263–2275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Savage, J.S., Fisher, J.O., & Birch, L.L. (2007). Parental influence on eating behavior: conception to adolescence. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, 35, 22–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Savino, F., Liguori, S.A., Fissore, M.F., Oggero, R., Silvestro, L., & Miniero, R. (2005). Serum ghrelin concentration and weight gain in healthy term infants in the first year of life. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 41, 653–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Schachter, S. (1968). Obesity and eating – internal and external cues differentially affect eating behavior of obese and normal subjects. Science, 161, 751–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Schachter, S. (1971). Some extraordinary facts about obese humans and rats. American Psychologist, 26, 129–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Schachter, S., Goldman, R., & Gordon, A. (1968). Effects of fear, food deprivation, and obesity on eating. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 91–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Serlachius, A., Hamer, M., & Wardle, J. (2007). Stress and weight change in university students in the United Kingdom. Physiology and Behavior, 92, 548–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Shunk, J.A., & Birch, L.L. (2004). Girls at risk for overweight at age 5 are at risk for dietary restraint, disinhibited overeating, weight concerns, and greater weight gain from 5 to 9 years. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104, 1120–1126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Silverman, B.L., Rizzo, T.A., Cho, N.H., & Metzger, B.E. (1998). Long-term effects of the intrauterine environment. The Northwestern University Diabetes in Pregnancy Center. Diabetes Care, 21, 142–149.Google Scholar
  175. Sleddens, E.F., Kremers, S.P., & Thijs, C. (2008). The Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire: factorial validity and association with Body Mass Index in Dutch children aged 6-7. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5, 49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Snoek, H.M., van Strien, T., Janssens, J., & Engels, R. (2007). Emotional, external, restrained eating, and overweight in Dutch adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48, 23–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Speakman, J.R., Rance, K.A., & Johnstone, A.M. (2008). Polymorphisms of the FTO gene are associated with variation in energy intake, but not energy expenditure. Obesity, 16, 1961–1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Spiegel, T.A. (2000). Rate of intake, bites, and chews – the interpretation of lean-obese differences. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 229–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Steinle, N.I., Hsueh, W.C., Snitker, S., Pollin, T.I., Sakul, H., St Jean, P.L., Bell, C.J., Mitchell, B.D., & Shuldiner, A.R. (2002). Eating behavior in the Old Order Amish: heritability analysis and a genome-wide linkage analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75, 1098–1106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Stratigopoulos, G., Padilla, S.L., Leduc, C.A., Watson, E., Hattersley, A.T., McCarthy, M.I., Zeltser, L.M., Chung, W.K., & Leibel, R.L. (2008). Regulation of Fto/Ftm gene expression in mice and humans. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 294, 1185–1196.Google Scholar
  181. Striegel-Moore, R.H., Morrison, J.A., Schreiber, G., Schumann, B.C., Crawford, P.B., & Obarzanek, E. (1999). Emotion-induced eating and sucrose intake in children: the NHLBI Growth and Health Study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 25, 389–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Stunkard, A.J., & Messick, S. (1985). The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 71–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Stunkard, A.J., Harris, J.R., Pedersen, N.L., & McClearn, G.E. (1990). The body-mass index of twins who have been reared apart. New England Journal of Medicine, 322, 1483–1487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Stunkard, A.J., Berkowitz, R.I., Schoeller, D., Maislin, G., & Stallings, V.A. (2004). Predictors of body size in the first 2y of life: a high-risk study of human obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 28, 503–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Sullivan, S.A., & Birch, L.L. (1990). Pass the sugar, pass the salt – experience dictates preference. Developmental Psychology, 26, 546–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Sullivan, S.A., & Birch, L.L. (1994). Infant dietary experience and acceptance of solid foods. Pediatrics, 93, 271–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Taylor, P.D., & Poston, L. (2007). Developmental programming of obesity in mammals. Experimental Physiology, 92, 287–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Temple, J.L., Giacomelli, A.M., Roemmich, J.N., & Epstein, L.H. (2007). Overweight children habituate slower than non-overweight children to food. Physiology and Behavior, 91, 250–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Temple, J.L., Legierski, C.M., Giacomelli, A.M., Salvy, S.J., & Epstein, L.H. (2008). Overweight children find food more reinforcing and consume more energy than do non overweight children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 1121–1127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Tholin, S., Rasmussen, F., Tynelius, P., & Karlsson, J. (2005). Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior: the Swedish young male twins study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81, 564–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Timpson, N.J., Emmett, P.M., Frayling, T.M., Rogers, I., Hattersley, A.T., McCarthy, M.I., & Davey Smith, G. (2008). The fat mass- and obesity-associated locus and dietary intake in children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88, 971–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. van den Bree, M.B., Eaves, L.J., & Dwyer, J.T. (1999). Genetic and environmental influences on eating patterns of twins aged ≥ 50 y. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 456–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. van Strien, T., & Oosterveld, P. (2008). The childrens DEBQ for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating in 7- to 12-year-old children. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41, 72–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. van Strien, T., Frijters, J., Bergers, G., & Defares, P.B. (1986). The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behavior. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 295–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Vauthier, J.M., Lluch, A., Lecomte, E., Artur, Y., & Herbeth, B. (1996). Family resemblance in energy and macronutrient intakes: the Stanislas Family Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 25, 1030–1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Vereecken, C.A., Keukelier, E., & Maes, L. (2004). Influence of mother’s educational level on food parenting practices and food habits of young children. Appetite, 43, 93–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Viana, V., Sinde, S., & Saxton, J.C. (2008). Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire: associations with BMI in Portuguese children. British Journal of Nutrition, 100, 445–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Vickers, M.H., Breier, B.H., Cutfield, W.S., Hofman, P.L., & Gluckman, P.D. (2000). Fetal origins of hyperphagia, obesity, and hypertension and postnatal amplification by hypercaloric nutrition. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism, 279, 83–87.Google Scholar
  199. Wade, J., Milner, J., & Krondl, M. (1981). Evidence for a physiological regulation of food selection and nutrient intake in twins. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34, 143–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Wardle, J., & Gibson, E.L. (2001). Impact of stress on diet: process and implications. In S. Stansfield & M.G. Marmot (Eds.), Stress and heart disease (pp. 35–40). London: British Medical Journal Books.Google Scholar
  201. Wardle, J., Marsland, L., Sheikh, Y., Quinn, M., Fedoroff, I., & Ogden, J. (1992). Eating style and eating behaviour in adolescents. Appetite, 18, 167–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Wardle, J., Guthrie, C.A., Sanderson, S., & Rapoport, L. (2001a). Development of the children’s eating behaviour questionnaire. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42, 963–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Wardle, J., Guthrie, C., Sanderson, S., Birch, L., & Plomin, R. (2001b). Food and activity preferences in children of lean and obese parents. International Journal of Obesity, 25, 971–977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Wardle, J., Cooke, L.J., Gibson, E.L., Sapochnik, M., Sheiham, A., & Lawson, M. (2003a). Increasing children’s acceptance of vegetables; a randomized trial of parent-led exposure. Appetite, 40, 155–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Wardle, J., Herrera, M.L., Cooke, L., & Gibson, E.L. (2003b). Modifying children’s food preferences: the effects of exposure and reward on acceptance of an unfamiliar vegetable. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57, 341–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Wardle, J., Carnell, S., Haworth, C.M., & Plomin, R. (2008a). Evidence for a strong genetic influence on childhood adiposity despite the force of the obesogenic environment. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 398–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Wardle, J., Carnell, S., Haworth, C., Farooqi, I.S., O’Rahilly, S., & Plomin, R. (2008b). Obesity associated genetic variation in FTO is associated with diminished satiety. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 93, 3640–3643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Wardle, J., Llewellyn, C., Sanderson, S., & Plomin, R. (2009). The FTO gene and measured food intake in children. International Journal of Obesity, 33, 42–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Waxman, M., & Stunkard, A.J. (1980). Caloric-intake and expenditure of obese boys. Journal of Pediatrics, 96, 187–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Webber, L., Hill, C., Saxton, J., Van Jaarsveld, C.H., & Wardle, J. (2009). Eating behaviour and weight in children. International Journal of Obesity, 33, 21–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Whitaker, R.C., Wright, J.A., Pepe, M.S., Seidel, K.D., & Dietz, W.H. (1997). Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 869–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Willer, C.J., Speliotes, E.K., Loos, R.J., Li, S., Lindgren, C.M., Heid, I.M., Berndt, S.I., Elliott, A.L., Jackson, A.U., & Lamina, C. (2009). Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation. Nature Genetics, 41, 25–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Wright, C., & Birks, E. (2000). Risk factors for failure to thrive: a population-based survey. Child Care, Health and Development, 26, 5–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Yang, W., Kelly, T., & He, J. (2007). Genetic epidemiology of obesity. Epidemiologic Reviews, 29, 49–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.The New York Obesity Research Center, St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital CenterColumbia University College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations