Advertisement

Physical Activity, Fitness and Fatness in Children and Adolescents

  • David Jiménez-Pavón
  • Jonatan R. Ruiz
  • Francisco B. Ortega
  • Enrique G. Artero
  • Vanesa España-Romero
  • José Castro-Piñero
  • Ángel Gutiérrez
  • Manuel J. Castillo
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Epidemiology and Public Health book series (SSEH, volume 2)

Abstract

Childhood and adolescence are crucial periods of life since dynamic changes in various metabolic systems, including hormonal regulation, changes in body fat content and body fat distribution, as well as transient changes in insulin sensitivity are known to occur during growth and puberty (Cruz et al. 2005). Dramatic psychological changes also occur during this period. Likewise, lifestyle and healthy/unhealthy behaviors are established during these years, which may influence adult behavior and health status.

Keywords

Physical Activity Physical Fitness Vigorous Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Fitness Moderate Physical Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The present work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education (EX-2007-1124, AP-2004-2745, AP-2005-3827 and AP2005-4358 INCLUDE: EX-2009-0899), the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, and the ALPHA study, an European Union-funded study, in the framework of the Public Health Program (Ref: 2006120).

References

  1. Abbott, R.A., & Davies, P.S. (2004). Habitual physical activity and physical activity intensity: their relation to body composition in 5.0–10.5-y-old children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 285–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, R.E., Crespo, C.J., Bartlet, S.J., Cheskin, L.J., & Pratt, M. (1998). Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 938–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen, L., Hasselstrøm, H., Gronfeldt, V., Hansen, S., & Froberg, K. (2004a). The relationship between physical fitness and clustered risk, and tracking of clustered risk from adolescence to young adulthood: eight years follow-up in the Danish Youth and Sport Study. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 1, 6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersen, L.B., Hasselstrøm, H., Gronfeldt, V., Hansen, S.E., & Karsten, F. (2004b). The relationship between physical fitness and clustered risk, and tracking of clustered risk from adolescence to young adulthood: eight years follow-up in the Danish Youth and Sport Study. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 1, 6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersen, L.B., Harro, M., Sardinha, L.B., Froberg, K., Ekelund, U., Brage, S., & Anderssen, S.A. (2006). Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet, 368, 299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ara, I., Vicente-Rodriguez, G., Jimenez-Ramirez, J., Dorado, C., Serrano-Sanchez, J.A., & Calbet, J.A. (2004). Regular participation in sports is associated with enhanced physical fitness and lower fat mass in prepubertal boys. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 28, 1585–1593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ara, I., Vicente-Rodriguez, G., Perez-Gomez, J., Jimenez-Ramirez, J., Serrano-Sanchez, J.A., Dorado, C., & Calbet, J.A. (2006). Influence of extracurricular sport activities on body composition and physical fitness in boys: a 3-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 30, 1062–1071.Google Scholar
  8. Ara, I., Moreno, L.A., Leiva, M.T., Gutin, B., & Casajus, J.A. (2007). Adiposity, physical activity, and physical fitness among children from Aragon, Spain. Obesity (Silver Spring), 15, 1918–1924.Google Scholar
  9. Barbeau, P., Gutin, B., Litaker, M., Owens, S., Riggs, S., & Okuyama, T. (1999). Correlates of individual differences in body-composition changes resulting from physical training in obese children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 705–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barbeau, P., Johnson, M.H., Howe, C.A., Allison, J., Davis, C.L., Gutin, B., & Lemmon, C.R. (2007). Ten months of exercise improves general and visceral adiposity, bone, and fitness in black girls. Obesity (Silver Spring), 15, 2077–2085.Google Scholar
  11. Barnekow-Bergkvist, M., Hedberg, G., Janlert, U., & Jansson, E. (2001). Adolescent determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in adult men and women. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 29, 208–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bell, R.D., Macek, M., Rutenfranz, J., & Saris, W. (1986). Health indicators and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases during childhood and adolescence. In J. Rutenfranz, R. Mocelin, F. Klimt (Eds.), Children and exercise XII (pp. 39–42). Champaign: Human Kinetics Publisher.Google Scholar
  13. Benson, A.C., Torode, M.E., & Singh, M.A. (2006). Muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher insulin sensitivity in children and adolescents. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 1, 222–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Benson, A.C., Torode, M.E., & Fiatarone Singh, M.A. (2008). The effect of high-intensity progressive resistance training on adiposity in children: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 32, 1016–1027.Google Scholar
  15. Berenson, G.S., Srinivasan, S.R., Bao, W., Newman, W.P., III, Tracy, R.E., & Wattigney, W.A. (1998). Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 1650–1656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Berkey, C.S., Rockett, H.R., Field, A.E., Gillman, M.W., Frazier, A.L., Camargo, C.A., Jr., & Colditz, G.A. (2000). Activity, dietary intake, and weight changes in a longitudinal study of preadolescent and adolescent boys and girls. Pediatrics, 105, E56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boreham, C., Twisk, J., Neville, C., Savage, M., Murray, L., & Gallagher, A. (2002). Associations between physical fitness and activity patterns during adolescence and cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. International Journal of Sports Medicine 23, Suppl 1, 22–26.Google Scholar
  18. Boreham, C.A., Ferreira, I., Twisk, J.W., Gallagher, A.M., Savage, M.J., & Murray, L.J. (2004). Cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and arterial stiffness: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. Hypertension, 44, 721–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brage, S., Wedderkopp, N., Ekelund, U., Franks, P.W., Wareham, N.J., Andersen, L.B., & Froberg, K. (2004). Features of the metabolic syndrome are associated with objectively measured physical activity and fitness in Danish children: the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Diabetes Care, 27, 2141–2148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brambilla, P., Bedogni, G., Moreno, L.A., Goran, M.I., Gutin, B., Fox, K.R., Peters D.M., Barbeau, P., De Simone, M., & Pietrobelli, A. (2006). Crossvalidation of anthropometry against magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in children. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 30, 23–30.Google Scholar
  21. Brunet, M., Chaput, J.P., & Tremblay, A. (2007). The association between low physical fitness and high body mass index or waist circumference is increasing with age in children: the “Quebec en Forme” Project. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 31, 637–643.Google Scholar
  22. Butte, N.F., Puyau, M.R., Adolph, A.L., Vohra, F.A., & Zakeri, I. (2007). Physical activity in nonoverweight and overweight Hispanic children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1257–1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Byrd-Williams, C.E., Shaibi, G.Q., Sun, P., Lane, C.J., Ventura, E.E., Davis, J.N., Kelly, L.A., & Goran, M.I. (2008). Cardiorespiratory fitness predicts changes in adiposity in overweight Hispanic boys. Obesity (Silver Spring), 16, 1072–1077.Google Scholar
  24. Carnethon, M.R., Gidding, S.S., Nehgme, R., Sidney, S., Jacobs, D.R., Jr., & Liu, K. (2003). Cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood and the development of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 3092–3100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Castillo-Garzon, M., Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., & Gutierrez-Sainz, A. (2007). A Mediterranean diet is not enough for health: physical fitness is an important additional contributor to health for the adults of tomorrow. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 97, 114–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Castro, R., Rivera, I., Blom, H.J., Jakobs, C., & Tavares de Almeida, I. (2006). Homocysteine metabolism, hyperhomocysteinaemia and vascular disease: an overview. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, 29, 3–20.Google Scholar
  27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (2004a). National health and nutrition examination survey 1999–2000 data. Hyattsville: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 21, 2007); http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nhanes/nhanes99_00.htm
  28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (2004b). National health and nutrition examination survey 2001–2002 data. Hyattsville: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 21, 2007); http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nhanes/nhanes01-02.htm
  29. Cole, T.J., Bellizzi, M.C., Flegal, K.M., & Dietz, W.H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. British Medical Journal, 320, 1240–1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cooper, D.M., Nemet, D., & Galassetti, P. (2004). Exercise, stress, and inflammation in the growing child: from the bench to the playground. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 16, 286–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cruz, M.L., Shaibi, G.Q., Weigensberg, M.J., Spruijt-Metz, D., Ball, G.D., & Goran, M.I. (2005). Pediatric obesity and insulin resistance: chronic disease risk and implications for treatment and prevention beyond body weight modification. Annual Review of Nutrition, 25, 435–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cureton, K.J., & Warren, G.L. (1990). Criterion-referenced standards for youth health-related fitness tests: a tutorial. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 61, 7–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dencker, M., & Andersen, L.B. (2008). Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 28, 133–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dencker, M., Thorsson, O., Karlsson, M.K., Linden, C., Wollmer, P., & Andersen, L.B. (2008). Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 18, 728–735.Google Scholar
  35. DuBose, K.D., Eisenmann, J.C., & Donnelly, J.E. (2007). Aerobic fitness attenuates the metabolic syndrome score in normal-weight, at-risk-for-overweight, and overweight children. Pediatrics, 120, 1262–1268.Google Scholar
  36. Eisenmann, J.C., Wickel, E.E., Welk, G.J., & Blair, S.N. (2005). Relationship between adolescent fitness and fatness and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adulthood: the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). American Heart Journal, 149, 46–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Eisenmann, J.C., Welk, G.J., Wickel, E.E., & Blair, S.N. (2007a). Combined influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index on cardiovascular disease risk factors among 8–18 year old youth: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 2, 66–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Eisenmann, J.C., Welk, G.J., Ihmels, M., & Dollman, J. (2007b). Fatness, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1251–1256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ekelund, U., Aman, J., Yngve, A., Renman, C., Westerterp, K., & Sjöström, M. (2002). Physical activity but not energy expenditure is reduced in obese adolescents: a case-control study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76, 935–941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ekelund, U., Sardinha, L.B., Anderssen, S.A., Harro, M., Franks, P.W., Brage, S., Cooper, A.R., Andersen, L.B., Riddoch, C., & Froberg, K. (2004). Associations between objectively assessed physical activity and indicators of body fatness in 9- to 10-y-old European children: a population-based study from 4 distinct regions in Europe (the European Youth Heart Study). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 584–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ekelund, U., Anderssen, S.A., Froberg, K., Sardinha, L.B., Andersen, L.B., & Brage, S. (2007a). Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: The European Youth Heart Study. Diabetologia, 50, 1832–1840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ekelund, U., Franks, P.W., Sharp, S., Brage, S., & Wareham, N.J. (2007b). Increase in physical activity energy expenditure is associated with reduced metabolic risk independent of change in fatness and fitness. Diabetes Care, 30, 2101–2106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Eliakim, A., Makowski, G.S., Brasel, J.A., & Cooper, D.M. (2000). Adiposity, lipid levels, and brief endurance training in nonobese adolescent males. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21, 332–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Eliakim, A., Scheett, T., Allmendinger, N., Brasel, J.A., & Cooper, D.M. (2001). Training, muscle volume, and energy expenditure in nonobese American girls. Journal of Applied Physiology, 90, 35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ferreira, I., Twisk, J.W., Stehouwer, C.D., van Mechelen, W., & Kemper, H.C. (2003). Longitudinal changes in VO2max: associations with carotid IMT and arterial stiffness. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 1670–1678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ferreira, I., Henry, R.M., Twisk, J.W., van Mechelen, W., Kemper, H.C., & Stehouwer, C.D. (2005). The metabolic syndrome, cardiopulmonary fitness, and subcutaneous trunk fat as independent determinants of arterial stiffness: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165, 875–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Freedman, D.S., Khan, L.K., Dietz, W.H., Srinivasan, S.R., & Berenson, G.S. (2001). Relationship of childhood obesity to coronary heart disease risk factors in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics, 108, 712–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gallistl, S., Sudi, K., Mangge, H., Erwa, W., & Borkenstein, M. (2000). Insulin is an independent correlate of plasma homocysteine levels in obese children and adolescents. Diabetes Care, 23, 1348–1352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Garcia-Artero, E., Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Mesa, J.L., Delgado, M., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Garcia-Fuentes, M., Vicente-Rodriguez, G., Gutierrez, A., & Castillo, M.J. (2007). Lipid and metabolic profiles in adolescents are affected more by physical fitness than physical activity (AVENA study). Revista Española de Cardiología, 60, 581–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Guo, S.S., Wu, W., Chumlea, W.C., & Roche, A.F. (2002). Predicting overweight and obesity in adulthood from body mass index values in childhood and adolescence. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76, 653–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gutin, B., Barbeau, P., Owens, S., Lemmon, C.R., Bauman, M., Allison, J., Kang, H.S., & Litaker, M.S. (2002). Effects of exercise intensity on cardiovascular fitness, total body composition, and visceral adiposity of obese adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75, 818–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gutin, B., Yin, Z., Humphries, M.C., & Barbeau, P. (2005). Relations of moderate and vigorous physical activity to fitness and fatness in adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81, 746–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gutin, B., Johnson, M.H., Humphries, M.C., Hatfield-Laube, J.L., Kapuku, G.K., Allison, J.D., Gower, B.A., Daniels, S.R., & Barbeau, P. (2007). Relationship of visceral adiposity to cardiovascular disease risk factors in black and white teens. Obesity (Silver Spring), 15, 1029–1035.Google Scholar
  54. Gutin, B., Yin, Z., Johnson, M., & Barbeau, P. (2008). Preliminary findings of the effect of a 3-year after-school physical activity intervention on fitness and body fat: the Medical College of Georgia Fitkid Project. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 3 (Suppl 1), 3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Halle, M., Berg, A., Northoff, H., & Keul, J. (1998). Importance of TNF-alpha and leptin in obesity and insulin resistance: a hypothesis on the impact of physical exercise. Exercise Immunology Review, 4, 77–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Halle, M., Korsten-Reck, U., Wolfarth, B., & Berg, A. (2004). Low-grade systemic inflammation in overweight children: impact of physical fitness. Exercise Immunology Review, 10, 66–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hansson, G.K. (2005). Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 352, 1685–1695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hasselstrom, H., Hansen, S.E., Froberg, K., & Andersen, L.B. (2002). Physical fitness and physical activity during adolescence as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in young adulthood. Danish Youth and Sports Study. An eight-year follow-up study. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23 (Suppl 1), 27–31.Google Scholar
  59. Hurtig-Wennlof, A., Ruiz, J.R., Harro, M., & Sjöström, M. (2007). Cardiorespiratory fitness relates more strongly than physical activity to cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 14, 575–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hussey, J., Bell, C., Bennett, K., O’Dwyer, J., & Gormley, J. (2007). Relationship between the intensity of physical activity, inactivity, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in 7–10-year-old Dublin children. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41, 311–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Isasi, C.R., Deckelbaum, R.J., Tracy, R.P., Starc, T.J., Berglund, L., & Shea, S. (2003). Physical fitness and C-reactive protein level in children and young adults: the Columbia University BioMarkers Study. Pediatrics, 111, 332–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Janssen, I., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Srinivasan, S.R., Chen, W., Malina, R.M., Bouchard, C., & Berenson, G.S. (2005). Combined influence of body mass index and waist circumference on coronary artery disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 115, 1623–1630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Janz, K.F., Dawson, J.D., & Mahoney, L.T. (2002a). Increases in physical fitness during childhood improve cardiovascular health during adolescence: the Muscatine Study. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23 (Suppl 1), 15–21.Google Scholar
  64. Janz, K.F., Burns, T.L., & Levy, S.M. (2005). Tracking of activity and sedentary behaviors in childhood: the Iowa Bone Development Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29, 171–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Jarvisalo, M.J., Harmoinen, A., Hakanen, M., Paakkunainen, U., Viikari, J., Hartiala, J., Lehtimaki, T., Simell, O., & Raitakari, O.T. (2002). Elevated serum C-reactive protein levels and early arterial changes in healthy children. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 22, 1323–1328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Johnson, M.S., Figueroa-Colon, R., Herd, S.L., Fields, D.A., Sun, M., Hunter, G.R., & Goran, M.I. (2000). Aerobic fitness, not energy expenditure, influences subsequent increase in adiposity in black and white children. Pediatrics, 106, E50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jurca, R., Lamonte, M.J., Barlow, C.E., Kampert, J.B., Church, T.S., & Blair, S.N. (2005). Association of muscular strength with incidence of metabolic syndrome in men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37, 1849–1855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Klein-Platat, C., Oujaa, M., Wagner, A., Haan, M.C., Arveiler, D., Schlienger, J.L., & Simon, C. (2005). Physical activity is inversely related to waist circumference in 12-y-old French adolescents. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 29, 9–14.Google Scholar
  69. Klijn, P.H., van der Baan-Slootweg, O.H., & van Stel, H.F. (2007). Aerobic exercise in adolescents with obesity: preliminary evaluation of a modular training program and the modified shuttle test. BMC Pediatrics, 7, 19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kohl, H.W., Fulton, J.E., & Caspersen, C.J. (2000). Assessment of physical activity among children and adolescents: a review and synthesis. Preventive Medicine, 31, 54–76.Google Scholar
  71. Koutedakis, Y., & Bouziotas, C. (2003). National physical education curriculum: motor and cardiovascular health related fitness in Greek adolescents. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 311–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kriemler, S., Hebestreit, H., Mikami, S., Bar-Or, T., Ayub, B.V., & Bar-Or, O. (1999). Impact of a single exercise bout on energy expenditure and spontaneous physical activity of obese boys. Pediatric Research, 46, 40–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kuo, H.K., Yen, C.J., & Bean, J.F. (2005). Levels of homocysteine are inversely associated with cardiovascular fitness in women, but not in men: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. Journal of Internal Medicine, 258, 328–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. LaMonte, M.J., & Blair, S.N. (2006). Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and adiposity: contributions to disease risk. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 9, 540–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lee, S.J., & Arslanian, S.A. (2007). Cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in youth. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 561–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. LeMura, L.M., & Maziekas, M.T. (2002). Factors that alter body fat, body mass, and fat-free mass in pediatric obesity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 487–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lobelo, F., & Ruiz, J.R. (2007). Cardiorespiratory fitness as criterion validity for health-based metabolic syndrome definition in adolescents. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 50, 471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lobelo, F., Pate, R.R., Dowda, M., Liese, A.D., & Ruiz, J.R. (2009). Validity of cardiorespiratory fitness criterion-referenced standards for adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41, 1222–1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McCully, K.S. (2005). Hyperhomocysteinemia and arteriosclerosis: historical perspectives. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 43, 980–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mesa, J.L., Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Castillo, M.J., Hurtig-Wennlöf, A., Sjöström, M., & Gutierrez, A. (2006a). The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness for healthy metabolic traits in children and adolescents: the AVENA study. Journal of Public Health, 14, 178–180.Google Scholar
  81. Mesa, J.L., Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Castillo, M.J., Tresaco, B., Carreno, F., Moreno, L.A., Gutierrez, A., & Bueno, M. (2006b). Anthropometric determinants of a clustering of lipid-related metabolic risk factors in overweight and non-overweight adolescents – influence of cardiorespiratory fitness. The AVENA Study. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 50, 519–527.Google Scholar
  82. Mesa, J.L., Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Warnberg, J., Gonzalez-Lamuno, D., Moreno, L.A., Gutierrez, A., & Castillo, M.J. (2006c). Aerobic physical fitness in relation to blood lipids and fasting glycaemia in adolescents: influence of weight status. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Disease, 16, 285–293.Google Scholar
  83. Metcalf, B.S., Voss, L.D., Hosking, J., Jeffery, A.N., & Wilkin, T.J. (2008). Physical activity at the government-recommended level and obesity-related health outcomes: a longitudinal study (EarlyBird 37). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 93, 772–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Mokdad, A.H., Marks, J.S., Stroup, D.F., & Gerberding, J.L. (2004). Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291, 1238–1245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Moore, L.L., Gao, D., Bradlee, M.L., Cupples, L.A., Sundarajan-Ramamurti, A., Proctor, M.H., Hood, M.Y., Singer, M.R., & Ellison, R.C. (2003). Does early physical activity predict body fat change throughout childhood? Preventive Medicine, 37, 10–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Nassis, G.P., Psarra, G., & Sidossis, L.S. (2005). Central and total adiposity are lower in overweight and obese children with high cardiorespiratory fitness. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, 137–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Oehlschlaeger, M.H., Pinheiro, R.T., Horta, B., Gelatti, C., & San’Tana, P. (2004). Prevalence of sedentarism and its associated factors among urban adolescents. Revista de Saúde Pública, 38, 157–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Castillo, M.J., Moreno, L.A., Warnberg, J., Tresaco, B., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Perez, F., Garcia-Fuentes, M., & Gutierrez, A. (2006). Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a favorable lipid profile independent of abdominal fat in male adolescents: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38, 7–8.Google Scholar
  89. Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., & Sjöström, M. (2007a). Physical activity, overweight and central adiposity in Swedish children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 4, 61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ortega, F.B., Tresaco, B., Ruiz, J.R., Moreno, L.A., Martin-Matillas, M., Mesa, J.L., Warnberg, J., Bueno, M., Tercedor, P., Gutierrez, A., & Castillo, M.J. (2007b). Cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary activities are associated with adiposity in adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring), 15, 1589–1599.Google Scholar
  91. Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Hurtig-Wennlof, A., Vicente-Rodriguez, G., Rizzo, N.S., Castillo, M.J., & Sjöström, M. (2010). Cardiovascular fitness modifies the associations between physical activity and abdominal adiposity in children and adolescents. The European Youth Heart Study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44, 256–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Owens, S., Gutin, B., Allison, J., Riggs, S., Ferguson, M., Litaker, M., & Thompson, W. (1999). Effect of physical training on total and visceral fat in obese children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, 143–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Pedersen, B.K., & Saltin, B. (2006). Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 16 (Suppl 1), 3–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Poortvliet, E., Yngve, A., Ekelund, U., Hurtig-Wennlof, A., Nilsson, A., Hagstromer, M., & Sjöström, M. (2003). The European Youth Heart Survey (EYHS): an international study that addresses the multi-dimensional issues of CVD risk factors. Forum of Nutrition, 56, 254–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Psarra, G., Nassis, G.P., & Sidossis, L.S. (2006). Short-term predictors of abdominal obesity in children. European Journal of Public Health, 16, 520–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Raitakari, O.T., Juonala, M., Kahonen, M., Taittonen, L., Laitinen, T., Maki-Torkko, N., Jarvisalo, M.J., Uhari, M., Jokinen, E., Ronnemaa, T., Akerblom, H.K., & Viikari, J.S. (2003). Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and carotid artery intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 2277–2283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Rey-Lopez, J.P., Vicente-Rodriguez, G., & Moreno, L.A. (2007). Sedentary behaviors and obesity development in children and adolescents. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, 18, 242–251.Google Scholar
  98. Rizzo, N.S., Ruiz, J.R., Hurtig-Wennlof, A., Ortega, F.B., & Sjöström, M. (2007). Relationship of physical activity, fitness, and fatness with clustered metabolic risk in children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study. The Journal of Pediatrics, 150, 388–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Rizzo, N.S., Ruiz, J.R., Oja, L., Veidebaum, T., & Sjöström, M. (2008). Associations between physical activity, body fat, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) in adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 586–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Rowland, T.W., Martel, L., Vanderburgh, P., Manos, T., & Charkoudian, N. (1996). The influence of short-term aerobic training on blood lipids in healthy 10–12 year old children. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 17, 487–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rowlands, A.V., Eston, R.G., & Ingledew, D.K. (1999). Relationship between activity levels, aerobic fitness, and body fat in 8- to 10-yr-old children. Journal of Applied Physiology, 86, 1428–1435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Gutierrez, A., Meusel, D., Sjöström, M., & Castillo, M.J. (2006a). Health-related fitness assessment in childhood and adolescence; A European approach based on the AVENA, EYHS and HELENA studies Journal of Public Health, 14, 269–277.Google Scholar
  103. Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Meusel, D., Harro, M., Oja, P., & Sjöström, M. (2006b). Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with features of metabolic risk factors in children. Should cardiorespiratory fitness be assessed in a European health monitoring system? The European Youth Heart Study. Journal of Public Health, 14, 94–102.Google Scholar
  104. Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Tresaco, B., Warnberg, J., Mesa, J.L., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Moreno, L.A., Marcos, A., Gutierrez, A., & Castillo, M.J. (2006c). Serum lipids, body mass index and waist circumference during pubertal development in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA Study. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 38, 832–837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ruiz, J.R., Rizzo, N.S., Hurtig-Wennlöf, A., Ortega, F.B., Wärnberg, J., & Sjöström, M. (2006d). Relations of total physical activity and intensity to fitness and fatness in children: the European Youth Heart Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 299–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ruiz, J.R., Hurtig-Wennlöf, A., Ortega, F.B., Patersson, E., Nilsson, T.K., Castillo, M.J., & Sjöström, M. (2007a). Homocysteine levels in children and adolescents are associated with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C > T genotype, but not with physical activity, fitness or fatness: The European Youth Heart Study. British Journal of Nutrition, 96, 255–262.Google Scholar
  107. Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Loit, H.M., Veidebaum, T., & Sjöström, M. (2007b). Body fat is associated with blood pressure in school-aged girls with low cardiorespiratory fitness: The European Youth Heart Study. Journal of Hypertension, 25, 2027–2034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Meusel, D., & Sjöström, M. (2007c). Traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors in school-aged children: call for the further development of public health strategies with emphasis on fitness. Journal of Public Health, 15, 171–177.Google Scholar
  109. Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Rizzo, N.S., Villa, I., Hurtig-Wennlöf, A., Oja, L., & Sjöström, M. (2007d). High cardiovascular fitness is associated with low metabolic risk score in children: The European Youth Heart Study. Pediatric Research, 61, 350–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Warnberg, J., & Sjöström, M. (2007e). Associations of low-grade inflammation with physical activity, fitness and fatness in prepubertal children; the European Youth Heart Study. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 31, 1545–1551.Google Scholar
  111. Ruiz, J.R., Rizzo, N.S., Ortega, F.B., Loit, H.M., Veidebaum, T., & Sjöström, M. (2007f). Markers of insulin resistance are associated with fatness and fitness in school-aged children: the European Youth Heart Study. Diabetologia, 50, 1401–1408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Ruiz, J.R., Sola, R., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Ortega, F.B., Vicente-Rodriguez, G., Garcia-Fuentes, M., Gutierrez, A., Sjöström, M., Pietrzik, K., & Castillo, M.J. (2007g). Cardiovascular fitness is negatively associated with homocysteine levels in female adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161, 166–171.Google Scholar
  113. Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Warnberg, J., Moreno, L.A., Carrero, J.J., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Marcos, A., Gutierrez, A., & Sjöström, M. (2008). Inflammatory proteins and muscle strength in adolescents: the AVENA study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162, 462–468.Google Scholar
  114. Ruiz, J.R., Castro-Pinero, J., Artero, E.G., Ortega, F.B., Sjöström, M., Suni, J., & Castillo, M.J. (2009). Predictive validity of health-related fitness in youth: a systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43, 909–923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Saelens, B.E., Seeley, R.J., van Schaick, K., Donnelly, L.F., & O’Brien, K.J. (2007). Visceral abdominal fat is correlated with whole-body fat and physical activity among 8-y-old children at risk of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 46–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sardinha, L.B., Andersen, L.B., Anderssen, S.A., Quiterio, A.L., Ornelas, R., Froberg, K., Riddoch, C.J., & Ekelund, U. (2008). Objectively measured time spent sedentary is associated with insulin resistance independent of overall and central body fat in 9- to 10-year-old Portuguese children. Diabetes Care, 31, 569–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Stallmann-Jorgensen, I.S., Gutin, B., Hatfield-Laube, J.L., Humphries, M.C., Johnson, M.H., & Barbeau, P. (2007). General and visceral adiposity in black and white adolescents and their relation with reported physical activity and diet. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 31, 622–629.Google Scholar
  118. Steele, R.M., Brage, S., Corder, K., Wareham, N.J., & Ekelund, U. (2008). Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome in youth. Journal of Applied Physiology, 105, 342–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Steinberger, J., Moran, A., Hong, C.P., Jacobs, D.R., Jr., & Sinaiko, A.R. (2001). Adiposity in childhood predicts obesity and insulin resistance in young adulthood. Journal of Pediatrics, 138, 469–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Stevens, J., Suchindran, C., Ring, K., Baggett, C.D., Jobe, J.B., Story, M., Thompson, J., Going, S.B., & Caballero, B. (2004). Physical activity as a predictor of body composition in American Indian children. Obesity Research, 12, 1974–1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Strong, W.B., Malina, R.M., Blimkie, C.J., Daniels, S.R., Dishman, R.K., Gutin, B., Hergenroeder, A.C., Must, A., Nixon, P.A., Pivarnik, J.M., Rowland, T., Trost, S., & Trudeau, F. (2005). Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. The Journal of Pediatrics, 146, 732–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Taylor, R.W., Jones, I.E., Williams, S.M., & Goulding, A. (2000). Evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and the conicity index as screening tools for high trunk fat mass, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, in children aged 3–19 y. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 490–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. The Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research (2004). FITNESSGRAM test administration manual, 3rd ed (pp. 38–39). Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  124. Thompson, D.R., Obarzanek, E., Franko, D.L., Barton, B.A., Morrison, J., Biro, F.M., Daniels, S.R., & Striegel-Moore, R.H. (2007). Childhood overweight and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. The Journal of Pediatrics, 150, 18–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Tolfrey, K., Campbell, I.G., & Batterham, A.M. (1998). Exercise training induced alterations in prepubertal children’s lipid-lipoprotein profile. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 1684–1692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Tolfrey, K., Jones, A.M., & Campbell, I.G. (2004). Lipid-lipoproteins in children: an exercise dose-response study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 418–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Twisk, J.W., Kemper, H.C., & van Mechelen, W. (2000). Tracking of activity and fitness and the relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 1455–1461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Twisk, J.W., Kemper, H.C., & van Mechelen, W. (2002a). Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk factors later in life by physical activity and physical fitness in youth: general comments and conclusions. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23, Suppl 1, 44–49.Google Scholar
  129. Twisk, J.W., Kemper, H.C., & van Mechelen, W. (2002b). The relationship between physical fitness and physical activity during adolescence and cardiovascular disease risk factors at adult age. The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 23, Suppl 1, 8–14.Google Scholar
  130. Wärnberg, J., Nova, E., Moreno, L.A., Romeo, J., Mesana, M.I., Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Sjöström, M., Bueno, M., & Marcos, A. (2006a). Inflammatory proteins are related to total and abdominal adiposity in a healthy adolescent population: the AVENA Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 505–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wärnberg, J., Ruiz, J.R., Sjöström, M., Ortega, F.B., Moreno, A., Moreno, L.A., Rizzo, N.S., & Marcos, A. (2006b). Association of fitness and fatness to low-grade systemic inflammation in adolescents. The AVENA study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38, 8.Google Scholar
  132. Winsley, R.J., Armstrong, N., Middlebrooke, A.R., Ramos-Ibanez, N., & Williams, C.A. (2006). Aerobic fitness and visceral adipose tissue in children. Acta Paediatrica, 95, 1435–1438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Wittmeier, K.D., Mollard, R.C., & Kriellaars, D.J. (2007). Objective assessment of childhood adherence to Canadian physical activity guidelines in relation to body composition. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 32, 217–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Wolfe, R.R. (2006). The underappreciated role of muscle in health and disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 475–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Yin, Z., Gutin, B., Johnson, M.H., Hanes, J., Jr., Moore, J.B., Cavnar, M., Thornburg, J., Moore, D., & Barbeau, P. (2005). An environmental approach to obesity prevention in children: Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project year 1 results. Obesity Research, 13, 2153–2161.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Jiménez-Pavón
    • 1
  • Jonatan R. Ruiz
    • 1
  • Francisco B. Ortega
    • 1
  • Enrique G. Artero
    • 1
  • Vanesa España-Romero
    • 1
  • José Castro-Piñero
    • 1
  • Ángel Gutiérrez
    • 1
  • Manuel J. Castillo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical Physiology, School of MedicineUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations