Perinatal and Infant Determinants of Obesity

  • Debbie A. Lawlor
  • George Davey Smith
  • Richard Martin
Part of the Springer Series on Epidemiology and Public Health book series (SSEH, volume 2)


Both professionals and the public view obesity as one of, if not the, most important public health problem of our times and concerns are increasingly focused on childhood obesity. Obesity has been included in the international classification of diseases since 1948, since when we have seen an epidemic develop internationally affecting all age groups, including children and adolescents (Kipping et al.


Maternal Smoking Maternal Body Mass Index Birth Size Great Body Mass Index Adult Body Mass Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Arenz, S., Ruckerl, R.., Koletzko, B., & von Kries, R. (2004). Breast-feeding and childhood obesity – a systematic review. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 28, 1247–1256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baeten, J.M., Bukusi, E.A., & Lambe, M. (2001). Pregnancy complications and outcomes among overweight and obese nulliparous women. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 436–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, J.L., Olsen, L.W., & Sorensen T.I. (2007). Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. New England Journal of Medicine, 357, 2329–2337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker, D.J. (1995). Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. British Medical Journal, 311, 171–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berenson, G.S., Srinivasan, S.R., & Nicola, N.A. (1998). Atherosclerosis: a nutritional disease of childhood. The American Journal of Cardiology, 82, 22–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Binkin, N.J., Yip, R., Fleshood, L., & Trowbridge, F.L. (1988). Birth weight and childhood growth. Pediatrics, 82, 828–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bjorge, T., Engeland, A., Tverdal, A., & Smith, G.D. (2008). Body mass index in adolescence in relation to cause-specific mortality: a follow-up of 230,000 Norwegian adolescents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 168, 30–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brion, M.J., Leary, S.D., Davey Smith, G., & Ness, A.R. (2007). Similar associations of parental prenatal smoking suggest child blood pressure is not influenced by intrauterine effects. Hypertension, 49, 1422–1428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brion, M.-J.A., Ness, A.R., Rogers, I., Emmett, P., Cribb, V., Davey Smith, G., & Lawlor, D.A. (2009). Maternal diet in pregnancy and offspring diet at ten years: exploring parental comparisons and prenatal effects, submitted.Google Scholar
  10. Brion, M.-J.A., Ness, A.R., Rogers, I., Emmett, P., Cribb, V., Davey Smith, G., & Lawlor, D.A. (2010a). Maternal macronutrient and energy intake in pregnancy and offspring intake at 10 years: exploring parental comparisons and prenatal effects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91:748–756.Google Scholar
  11. Brion, M.-J. A., Lawlor, D.A., Matijasevich, A., Horta, B., Anselmi, L., Araújo, C.L., Menezes, A.M.B., Victora, C.G., & Davey, Smith, G. (2010b). What are the causal effects of breastfeeding on IQ, obesity and blood pressure? Evidence from comparing high-income and middle-income cohorts. International Journal of Epidemiology, in press (accepted November 2010).Google Scholar
  12. Catalano, P.M. (2003). Obesity and pregnancy – the propagation of a viscous cycle? The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88, 3505–3506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Catalano, P.M., Thomas, A., Huston-Presley, L., & Amini, S.B. (2003). Increased fetal adiposity: a very sensitive marker of abnormal in utero development. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 189, 1698–1704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clausen, T.D., Mathiesen, E.R., Hansen, T., Pedersen, O., Jensen, D.M., Lauenborg, J., & Damm, P. (2008). High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes: the role of intrauterine hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care, 31, 340–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crowther, C.A., Hiller, J.E., Moss, J.R., McPhee, A.J., Jeffries, W.S., & Robinson, J.S. (2005). Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes. New England Journal of Medicine, 352, 2477–2486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dabelea, D. (2007). The predisposition to obesity and diabetes in offspring of diabetic mothers. Diabetes Care, 30, 169–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dabelea, D., & Pettitt, D.J. (2001). Intrauterine diabetic environment confers risks for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in the offspring, in addition to genetic susceptibility. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 14, 1085–1091.Google Scholar
  18. Dabelea, D., Hanson, R.L., Lindsay, R.S., Pettitt, D.J., Imperatore, G., Gabir, M.M., Roumain, J., Bennett, P.H., & Knowler, W.C. (2000). Intrauterine exposure to diabetes conveys risks for type 2 diabetes and obesity: a study of discordant sibships. Diabetes, 49, 2208–2211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dahlgren, J., Nilsson, C., Jennische, E., Ho, H.P., Eriksson, E., Niklasson, A., Björntorp, P., Wikland, K.A., & Holmäng, A. (2001). Prenatal cytokine exposure results in obesity and gender-specific programming. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 281, 326–334.Google Scholar
  20. Davey Smith, G. (2008). Assessing intrauterine influences on offspring health outcomes: can epidemiological studies yield robust findings? Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 102, 245–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davey Smith, G., & Ebrahim, S. (2003). “Mendelian randomisation”: can genetic epidemiology contribute to understanding environmental determinants of disease? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 1–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davey Smith, G., Steer, C., Leary, S., & Ness, A. (2007). Is there an intra-uterine influence on obesity? Evidence from parent-child associations in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 92, 876–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davey Smith, G., Lawlor, D.A., Harbord, R., Timpson, N., Day, I.N.M., & Ebrahim, S. (2008). Clustered environments and randomized genes: a fundamental distinction between conventional and genetic epidemiology. PLoS Medicine, 4, e352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dornhorst, A., Nicholls, J.S., Ali, K., Andres, C., Adamson, D.L., Kelly, L.F., Niththyananthan, R., Beard, R.W., & Gray, I.P. (1994). Fetal proinsulin and birth weight. Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association, 11, 177–181.Google Scholar
  25. Duran-Tauleria, E., Rona, R.J., & Chinn, S. (1995). Factors associated with weight for height and skinfold thickness in British children. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 49, 466–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ebbeling, C.B., Pawlak, D.B., & Ludwig, D.S. (2002). Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet, 360, 473–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ehtisham, S., Barrett, T.G., & Shaw, N.J. (2000). Type 2 diabetes mellitus in UK children – an emerging problem. Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association, 17, 867–871.Google Scholar
  28. Fagot-Campagna, A., Pettitt, D.J., Engelgau, M.M., Burrows, N.R., Geiss, L.S., Valdez, R., Beckles, G.L., Saaddine, J., Gregg, E.W., Williamson, D.F., & Narayan, K.M. (2000). Type 2 diabetes among North American children and adolescents: an epidemiologic review and a public health perspective. The Journal of Pediatrics, 136, 664–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fisch, R.O., Bilek, M.K., & Ulstrom, R. (1975). Obesity and leanness at birth and their relationship to body habitus in later childhood. Pediatrics, 56, 521–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Forouhi, N., Hall, E., & McKeigue, P. (2004). A life course approach to diabetes. In D. Kuh & Y. Ben-Shlomo (Eds.), A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology (pp. 165–188). Second ed. Oxford: University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Forrester, T.E., Wilks, R.J., Bennett, F.I., Simeon, D., Osmond, C., & Allen, M. (1996). Fetal growth and cardiovascular risk factors in Jamaican school children. British Medical Journal, 312, 156–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fraser, A., Tilling, K., Macdonald-Wallis, C., Sattar, N., Brion, M.-J., Benfield, L., Ness, A., Deanfield, J., Hingorani, A., Nelson, S.M., Davey Smith, G., & Lawlor, D.A. (2010). Association of maternal weight gain in pregnancy with offspring obesity and metabolic and vascular traits in childhood. Circulation, 121:2557–2564.Google Scholar
  33. Frayling, T.M., Timpson, N.J., Weedon, M.N., Zeggini, E., Freathy, R.M., Lindgren, C.M., Perry, J.R.B., Eilliot, K.S., Lango, H., Rayner, N.W., Sheilds, B., Harries, L.W., Barrett, J.C., Ellard, S., Groves, C.J., Knight, B., Patch, A.-M., Ness, A.R., Ebrahim, S., Lawlor, D.A., Ring, S.M., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Javelin, M.-R., Sovio, U., Bennett, A.J., Meltzer, D., Ferrucci, L., Loos, R.J.F., Wareham, N.J., Karpe, F., Owen, K.R., Cardon, L.R., Walker, M., Hitman, G.A., Palmer, C.N.A., Doney, A.S.F., Morris, A.D., Davey Smith, G., The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, Hattersley, A.T., & McCarthy, M.I. (2007). A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science, 316, 889–894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Freinkel, N. (1980). Of pregnancy and progeny. Diabetes, 29, 1023–1035.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Freinkel, N., & Metzger, B.E. (1979). Pregnancy as a tissue culture experience, the critical implications of maternal metabolism for fetal development. In Ciba Foundation (Eds.), Pregnancy metabolism, diabetes and the fetus (Ciba Foundation Symposium No. 63) (pp. 3–23). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.Google Scholar
  36. Gluckman, P.D., & Hanson, M.A. (2004). The developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome. Trends in Endocrinol Metab, 15, 183–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Guillaume, M., Lapidus, L., Beckers, F., Lambert, A., & Bjorntorp, P. (1995). Familial trends of obesity through three generations: the Belgian-Luxembourg child study. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 19, Suppl 3, 5–9.Google Scholar
  38. Harder, T., Bergmann, R., Kallischnigg, G., & Plagemann, A. (2005). Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 162, 397–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hediger, M.L., Overpeck, M.D., McGlynn, A., Kuczmarski, R.J., Maurer, K.R., & Davis, W.W. (1999). Growth and fatness at three to six years of age of children born small- or large-for-gestational age. Pediatrics, 104, e33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Howe, L.D., Tilling, K., Benfield, L., Sattar, N., Ness, A.R., Davey Smith, G., & Lawlor, D.A. (2010). Changes in ponderal index and body mass index across childhood and their association with fat mass and cardiovascular risk factors at age 15. PLoS One, (accepted October 2010)Google Scholar
  41. Huxley, R., Owen, C.G., Whincup, P.H., Cook, D.G., Rich-Edwards, J., & Davey Smith, G. (2007). Is birth weight a risk factor for ischemic heart disease in later life? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 1244–1250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Jovanovic, L., & Pettitt, D.J. (2001). Gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286, 2516–2518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kane, J.K., Parker, S.L., Matta, S.G., Fu, Y., Sharp, B.M., & Li, M.D. (2000). Nicotine up-regulates expression of orexin and its receptors in rat brain. Endocrinology, 141, 3623–3629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kensara, O.A., Wootton, S.A., Phillips, D.I., Patel, M., Jackson, A.A., Elia, M., & Hertfordshire Study Group (2005). Fetal programming of body composition: relation between birth weight and body composition measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric methods in older Englishmen. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, 980–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kipping, R.R., Jago, R., & Lawlor, D.A. (2008). Obesity in children. Part 1: epidemiology, measurement, risk factors, and screening. British Medical Journal, 337, a1824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kivimaki, M., Lawlor, D.A., Smith, G.D., Elovainio, M., Jokela, M., Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., Viikari, J.S., & Raitakari, O.T. (2007). Substantial intergenerational increases in body mass index are not explained by the fetal overnutrition hypothesis: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86, 1509–1514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kjos, S.L., & Buchanan, T.A. (1999). Gestational diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine, 341, 1749–1756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kostalova, L., Leskova, L., Kapellerova, A., & Strbak, V. (2001). Body mass, plasma leptin, glucose, insulin and C-peptide in offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic mothers. European Journal of Endocrinology, 145, 53–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kral, J.G., Biron, S., Simard, S., Hould, F.S., Lebel, S., Marceau, S., & Marceau, P. (2006). Large maternal weight loss from obesity surgery prevents transmission of obesity to children who were followed for 2 to 18 years. Pediatrics, 118, 1644–1649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kramer, M.S., Barr, R.G., Leduc, D.G., Boisjoly, C., McVey-White, L., & Pless, I.B. (1985). Determinants of weight and adiposity in the first year of life. The Journal of Pediatrics, 106, 10–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kramer, M.S., Chalmers, B., Hodnett, E.D., Sevkovskaya, Z., Dzikovich, I., Shapiro, S., Collet, J.P., Vanilovich, I., Mezen, I., Ducruet, T., Shishko, G., Zubovich, V., Mknuik, D., Gluchanina, E., Dombrovskiy, V., Ustinovitch, A., Kot, T., Bogdanovich, N., Ovchinikova, L., Helsing, E., & PROBIT Study Group (Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial) (2001). Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT): a randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 413–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kramer, M.S., Guo, T., Platt, R.W., Shapiro, S., Collet, J.P., Chalmers, B., Hodnett, E., Sevkovskaya, Z., Dzikovich, I., Vanilovich, I., & PROBIT Study Group (2002). Breastfeeding and infant growth: biology or bias? Pediatrics, 110, 343–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kramer, M.S., Matush, L., Vanilovich, I., Platt, R., Bogdanovich, N., Sevkosvkaya, Z., Dzikovich, I., Shishko, G., Collet, J.P., Martin, R.M., Davey Smith, G., Gillman, M.W., Chalmers, B., Hodnett, E., Shapiro, S., & Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT) Study Group (2007). Effects of prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding on child height, weight, adiposity, and blood pressure at age 6.5y: evidence from a large randomized trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86, 1717–1721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Labayen, I., Moreno, L.A., Blay, M.G., Blay, V.A., Mesana, M.I., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Bueno, G., Sarria, A., & Bueno, M. (2006). Early programming of body composition and fat distribution in adolescents. Journal of Nutrition, 136, 147–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Laitinen, J., Power, C., & Jarvelin, M.R. (2001). Family social class, maternal body mass index, childhood body mass index, and age at menarche as predictors of adult obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74, 287–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lake, J.K., Power, C., & Cole, T.J. (1997). Child to adult body mass index in the 1958 British birth cohort: associations with parental obesity. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 77, 376–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Law, C.M., Barker, D.J., Osmond, C., Fall, C.H., & Simmonds, S.J. (1992). Early growth and abdominal fatness in adult life. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 46, 184–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Law, C.M., Gordon, G.S., Shiell, A.W., Barker, D.J., & Hales, C.N. (1995). Thinness at birth and glucose tolerance in seven-year-old children. Diabetic Medicine, 12, 24–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lawlor, D.A., Riddoch, C.J., Page, A.S., Anderssen, S.A., Froberg, K., & Harro, M. (2004). The association of birth weight and contemporary size with insulin resistance among children from Estonia and Denmark: findings from the European Heart Study. Diabetic Medicine, 22, 921–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lawlor, D.A., Davey Smith, G., O’Callaghan, M., Alati, R., Mamun, A.A., Williams, G.M., & Najman, J.M. (2007). Epidemiologic evidence for the fetal overnutrition hypothesis: findings from the mater-university study of pregnancy and its outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165, 418–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lawlor, D.A., Harbord, R.M., Sterne, J.A.C., Timpson, N.J., & Davey Smith, G. (2008a). Mendelian randomization and instrumental variables. Statistics in Medicine, 27, 1133–1163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lawlor, D.A., Timpson, N., Harbord, R., Leary, S., Ness, A., McCarthy, M.I., Frayling, T.M., Hattersley, A.T., & Davey Smith, G. (2008b). Exploring the developmental overnutrition hypothesis using parental-offspring associations and the FTO gene as an instrumental variable for maternal adiposity: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). PLoS Medicine, 5, e33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lawlor, D.A., Benfield, L., Logue, J., Tilling, K., Howe, L.D., Fraser, A., Cherry, L., Watt, P., Ness, A.R., Davey Smith, G., & Sattar, N. (2010a). The association of general and central adiposity, and change in these with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence: A prospective cohort study. BMJ, in press (accepted September 2010)Google Scholar
  64. Lawlor, D.A., Fraser, A., Lindsay, R.S., Ness, A., Dabelea, D., Catalano, P., Davey Smith, G., Sattar, N., & Nelson, S.M. (2010b). The association of existing diabetes, gestational diabetes and glycosuria in pregnancy with macrosomia and offspring body mass index, waist and fat mass in later childhood: findings from a prospective pregnancy cohort. Diabetologia, 53, 89–97Google Scholar
  65. Lawlor, D.A., Lichtenstein, P., & Långström, N. (2010c). Maternal diabetes in pregnancy programmes greater offspring adiposity into early adulthood: Sibling study in a prospective cohort of 280,866 men from 248,293 families. Circulation, in press (accepted October 2010)Google Scholar
  66. Leary, S.D., Davey Smith, G., Rogers, I.S., Reilly, J.J., Wells, J.C., & Ness, A.R. (2006). Smoking during pregnancy and offspring fat and lean mass in childhood. Obesity, 14, 2284–2293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Levin, B.E., & Govek, E. (1998). Gestational obesity accentuates obesity in obesity-prone progeny. American Journal of Physiology, 275, 1374–1379.Google Scholar
  68. Li, C., Kaur, H., Choi, W.S., Huang, T.T., Lee, R.E., & Ahluwalia, J.S. (2005). Additive interactions of maternal prepregnancy BMI and breast-feeding on childhood overweight. Obesity Research, 13, 362–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li, L., Hardy, R., Kuh, D., Lo, C.R., & Power, C. (2008). Child-to-adult body mass index and height trajectories: a comparison of 2 British birth cohorts. American Journal of Epidemiology, 168, 1008–1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mamun, A.A., Lawlor, D.A., Alati, R., O’Callaghan, M.J., Williams, G.M., & Najman, J.M. (2006). Does maternal smoking during pregnancy have a direct effect on future offspring obesity? Evidence from a prospective birth cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164, 317–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mamun, A.A., O’Callaghan, M., Callaway, L., Williams, G., Najman, J., & Lawlor, D.A. (2009). Associations of gestational weight gains with offspring body mass index and blood pressure at 21 years: evidence from a birth cohort study. Circulation, 119, 1720–1727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Manderson, J.G., Mullan, B., Patterson, C.C., Hadden, D.R., Traub, A.I., & McCance, D.R. (2002). Cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities in the offspring of diabetic pregnancy. Diabetologia, 45, 991–996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McCarthy, A., Hughes, R., Tilling, K., Davies, D., Davey Smith, G., & Ben-Shlomo, Y. (2007). Birth weight; postnatal, infant, and childhood growth; and obesity in young adulthood: evidence from the Barry Caerphilly Growth Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86, 907–913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Metzger, B.E., Silverman, B.L., Freinkel, N., Dooley, S.L., Ogata, E.S., & Green, O.C. (1990). Amniotic fluid insulin concentration as a predictor of obesity. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 65, 1050–1052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Metzger, B.E., Lowe, L.P., Dyer, A.R., Trimble, E.R., Chaovarindr, U., Coustanm, D.R., Hadden, D.R., McCance, D.R., Hod, M., McIntyre, H.D., Oats, J.J.N., Persson, B., Rogers, M.S., & Sacks, D.A. (2008). Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 1991–2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Moreira, P., Padez, C., Mourao-Carvalhal, I., & Rosado, V. (2007). Maternal weight gain during pregnancy and overweight in Portuguese children. International Journal of Obesity (London), 31, 608–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Naturenews. (2009)., accessed on April 14, 2009.
  78. Okens, K., Taveras, E.M., Kleinman, K.P., Rich-Edwards, J.W., & Gillman, M.W. (2005). Maternal weight gain during pregnancy and child adiposity at age 3 years. Pediatric Research, 58, 1127.Google Scholar
  79. Okun, N., Verma, A., Mitchell, B.F., & Flowerdew, G. (1997). Relative importance of maternal constitutional factors and glucose intolerance of pregnancy in the development of newborn macrosomia. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, 6, 285–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ong, K.K., Emmett, P., Northstone, K., Golding, J., Rogers, I., Ness, A.R., Wells, J.C., & Dunger, D.B. (2009). Infancy weight gain predicts childhood body fat and age at menarche in girls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-2489.Google Scholar
  81. Owen, C.G., Whincup, P.H., Odoki, K., Gilg, J.A., & Cook, D.G. (2003). Birth weight and blood cholesterol level: a study in adolescents and systematic review. Pediatrics, 111, 1081–1089.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Owen, C.G., Martin, R.M., Whincup, P.H., Davey Smith, G., & Cook, D.G. (2005a). Effect of infant feeding on the risk of obesity across the life course: a quantitative review of published evidence. Pediatrics, 115, 1367–1377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Owen, C.G., Martin, R.M., Whincup, P.H., Davey Smith, G., Gillman, M.W., & Cook, D.G. (2005b). The effect of breast feeding on mean body mass index throughout the lifecourse; a quantitative review of published and unpublished observational evidence. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, 1298–1307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Owen, C.G., Whincup, P.H., Orfei, L., Chou, Q., Eriksson, J., & Osmond, C. (2007). Body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease: a lifecourse approach. Early Human Development, 83, 78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Parsons, T.J., Power, C., & Manor, O. (2001). Fetal and early life growth and body mass index from birth to early adulthood in 1958 British cohort: longitudinal study. British Medical Journal, 323, 1331–1335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pederson, J. (1954). Weight and length at birth of infants of diabetic mothers. Acta Endocrinologica, 16, 330–342.Google Scholar
  87. Persson, B., Heding, L.G., Lunell, N.O., Pschera, H., Stangenberg, M., & Wager, J. (1982). Fetal beta cell function in diabetic pregnancy. Amniotic fluid concentrations of proinsulin, insulin, and C-peptide during the last trimester of pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 144, 455–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Pettitt, D.J., & Knowler, W.C. (1998). Long-term effects of the intrauterine environment, birthweight, and breast-feeding in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care, 21, 138–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pettitt, D.J., Baird, H.R., Aleck, K.A., Bennett, P.H., & Knowler, W.C. (1983). Excessive obesity in offspring of Pima Indian women with diabetes during pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine, 308, 242–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pettitt, D.J., Knowler, W.C., Bennett, P.H., Aleck, K.A., & Baird, H.R. (1987). Obesity in offspring of diabetic Pima Indian women despite normal birth weight. Diabetes Care, 10, 76–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pettitt, D.J., Nelson, R.G., Saad, M.F., Bennett, P.H., & Knowler, W.C. (1993). Diabetes and obesity in the offspring of Pima Indian women with diabetes during pregnancy. Diabetes Care, 16, 310–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pietilainen, K.H., Kaprio, J., Rasanen, M., Winter, T., Rissanen, A., & Rose, R.J. (2001). Tracking of body size from birth to late adolescence: contributions of birth length, birth weight, duration of gestation, parents’ body size and twinship. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154, 21–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Power, C., & Jefferis, B.J. (2002). Fetal environment and subsequent obesity: a study of maternal smoking. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 413–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Power, C., Lake, J.K., & Cole, T.J. (1997). Body mass index and height from childhood to adulthood in the 1958 British born cohort. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66, 1094–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Pribylova, H., & Dvorakova, L. (1996). Long-term prognosis of infants of diabetic mothers. Relationship between metabolic disorders in newborns and adult offspring. Acta Diabetologica, 33, 30–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ramsay, J.E., Ferrell, W.R., Crawford, L., Wallace, A.M., Greer, I.A., & Sattar, N. (2002). Maternal obesity is associated with dysregulation of metabolic, vascular, and inflammatory pathways. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87, 4231–4237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rasmussen, F., & Johansson, M. (1998). The relation of weight, length and ponderal index at birth to body mass index and overweight among 18-year-old males in Sweden. European Journal of Epidemiology, 14, 373–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rogers, I.S., Ness, A.R., Steer, C.D., Wells, J.C.K., Emmett, P.M., Reilly, J.R., Tobias, J., & Davey Smith, G. (2006). Associations of size at birth and dual-energy X-rat absorptiometry measures of lean and fat mass at 9 to 10 years of age. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 739–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sachdev, H.S., Fall, C.H, Osmond, C., Lakshmy, R., Dey Biswas, S.K., Leary, S.D., Reddy, K.S., Barker, D.J.P., & Bhargava, S.K. (2005). Anthropometric indicators of body composition in young adults: relation to size at birth and serial measurements of body mass index in childhood in the New Delhi birth cohort. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, 456–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Schack-Nielsen, L., Mortensen, E.L., Michaelsen, K.F., & Ti, S. (2005). High maternal pregnancy weight gain is associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood and adulthood independent of maternal BMI. Pediatric Research, 58, 1020.Google Scholar
  101. Scholl, T.O., Sowers, M., Chen, X., & Lenders, C. (2001). Maternal glucose concentration influences fetal growth, gestation, and pregnancy complications. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154, 514–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sebire, N.J., Jolly, M., Harris, J.P., Wadsworth, J., Joffe, M., Beard, R.W., Regan, L., & Robinson, S. (2001). Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: a study of 287,213 pregnancies in London. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 25, 1175–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Seidman, D.S., Laor, A., Gale, R., Stevenson, D.K., & Danon, Y.L. (1991). A longitudinal study of birth weight and being overweight in late adolescence. American Journal of Diseases in Children, 145, 782–785.Google Scholar
  104. Seidman, D.S., Laor, A., Shemer, J., Gale, R., & Stevenson, D.K. (1996). Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy and being overweight at 17 years of age. Pediatric Research, 39, 112A.Google Scholar
  105. Sermer, M., Naylor, C.D., Gare, D.J., Kenshole, A.B., Ritchie, J.W., Farine, D., Cohen, H.R., McArthur, K., Holzapfel, S., Biringer, A., Chen, E., & Toronto Tri-Hospital Gestational Diabetes Investigators (1995). Impact of increasing carbohydrate intolerance on maternal-fetal outcomes in 3637 women without gestational diabetes. The Toronto Tri-Hospital Gestational Diabetes Project. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 173, 146–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sharma, A.J., Cogswell, M.E., & Grummer-Strawn, L.M. (2005). The association between pregnancy weight gain and childhood overweight is modified by mother’s pre-pregnancy BMI. Pediatric Research, 58, 1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Silverman, B.L., Rizzo, T., Green, O.C., Cho, N.H., Winter, R.J., Ogata, E.S., Richards, G.E., & Metzger, B.E. (1991). Long-term prospective evaluation of offspring of diabetic mothers. Diabetes, 40, Suppl 2, 121–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Silverman, B.L., Landsberg, L., & Metzger, B.E. (1993). Fetal hyperinsulinism in offspring of diabetic mothers. Association with the subsequent development of childhood obesity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 699, 36–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Silverman, B.L., Metzger, B.E., Cho, N.H., & Loeb, C.A. (1995). Impaired glucose tolerance in adolescent offspring of diabetic mothers. Relationship to fetal hyperinsulinism. Diabetes Care, 18, 611–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Singhal, A., & Lucas, A. (2004). Early origins of cardiovascular disease: is there a unifying hypothesis? Lancet, 363, 1642–1645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Singhal, A., Fewtrell, M., Cole, T.J., & Lucas, A. (2003a). Low nutrient intake and early growth for later insulin resistance in adolescents born preterm. Lancet, 361, 1089–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Singhal, A., Wells, J., Cole, T.J., Fewtrell, M., & Lucas, A. (2003b). Programming of lean body mass: a link between birth weight, obesity and cardiovascular disease? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77, 726–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Slotkin, T.A. (1998). Fetal nicotine or cocaine exposure: which one is worse? The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 285, 931–945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sobngwi, E., Boudou, P., Mauvais-Jarvis, F., Leblanc, H., Velho, G., Vexiau, P., Porcher, R., Hadjadj, S., Pratley, R., Tataranni, P.A., Calvo, F., & Gautier, J.F. (2003). Effect of a diabetic environment in utero on predisposition to type 2 diabetes. Lancet, 361, 1861–1865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Stettler, N., Tershakovec, A.M., Zemel, B.S., Leonard, M.B., Boston, R.C., Katz, S.H., & Stallings, V.A. (2000). Early risk factors for increased adiposity: a cohort study of African American subjects followed from birth to young adulthood. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 378–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Strauss, R.S. (1997). Effects of the intrauterine environment on childhood growth. British Medical Bulletin, 53, 81–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Te Velde, S.J., Twisk, J.W.E., Van Mechelan, W., & Kemper, H.C.G. (2003). Birth weight, adult body composition, and subcutaneous fat distribution. Obesity Research, 11, 202–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Toschke, A.M., Montgomery, S.M., Pfeiffer, U., & von Kries, R. (2003). Early intrauterine exposure to tobacco-inhaled products and obesity. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158, 1068–1074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Von Kries, R., Toschke, A.M., Koletzko, B., & Slikker, W., Jr. (2002). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156, 954–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Walker, S.P., Gaskin, P.S., Powell, C.A., & Bennett, F.I. (2002). The effects of birth weight and postnatal linear growth retardation on body mass index, fatness and fat distribution in mid and late childhood. Public Health Nutrition, 5, 391–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Weiss, P.A., Scholz, H.S., Haas, J., Tamussino, K.F., Seissler, J., & Borkenstein, M.H. (2000). Long-term follow-up of infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes: evidence for hereditary and nonhereditary transmission of diabetes and precursors. Diabetes Care, 23, 905–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Whincup, P.H., Cook, D.G., & Geleijnse, J.M. (2004). A life course approach to blood pressure. In D. Kuh & Y. Ben-Shlomo (Eds.), A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology (pp. 218–239). Second ed. Oxford: University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Whincup, P.H., Kaye, S.J., Owen, C.G., Huxley, R., Cook, D.G., Anazawa, S., Barrett-Connor, E., Bhargava, S.K., Birgisdottir, B., Carlsson, S., De Rooij, S., Dyck, R., Eriksson, J.G., Falkner, B., Fall, C., Forsen, T., Grill, V., Gudnason, V., Hulman, S., Hypponen, E., Jeffreys, M., Lawlor, D.A., Leon, D.A., Mi, J., Minami, J., Mishra, G., Osmond, C., Power, C., Rich-Edwards, J., Roseboom, T.J., Sachdev, H.P.S., Suzuki, T., Syddall, H., Thorsdottir, I., Vanhala, M., Wadsworth, M., & Yarbrough, D.E. (2008). Birthweight and risk of type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review of published evidence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 300, 2886–2897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Whitaker, R.C. (2004). Predicting preschooler obesity at birth: the role of maternal obesity in early pregnancy. Pediatrics, 114, 29–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Whitaker, R.C., & Dietz, W.H. (1998). Role of the prenatal environment in the development of obesity. The Journal of Pediatrics, 132, 768–776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Debbie A. Lawlor
    • 1
  • George Davey Smith
    • 1
  • Richard Martin
    • 2
  1. 1.MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, Department of Social MedicineUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  2. 2.Department of Social MedicineUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations