Advertisement

Epidemiology and Clinical Profile of Obesity in Children and Adolescents: South-East Asia and Singapore

  • Ting Fei Ho
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Epidemiology and Public Health book series (SSEH, volume 2)

Abstract

Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has more than trebled in many countries. In 2005, it is estimated that globally there are about 1.6 billion overweight adults and at least 400 million of them are obese (WHO Fact Sheet No. 311 2006). Such rapid increase in adult overweight and obesity is a world-wide problem, confined not only to developed countries but is also observed in developing countries. While the prevalence of overweight and obese adults in many Asian and South East Asian countries may be below that in Europe or the United States, the general trend of increasing prevalence is likewise observed.

Keywords

Asian Country Childhood Obesity Poverty Line Exclusive Breastfeed Obese Adolescent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alberti, G., Zimmet, P., Shaw, J., Bloomgarden, Z., Kaufman, F., & Silink, M. (2004). Type 2 diabetes in the young: the evolving epidemic; the international diabetes federation consensus workshop. Diabetes Care, 27, 1798–1811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bell, A.C., Ge, K., & Popkin, B.M. (2002). The road to obesity or the path to prevention: motorized transportation and obesity in China. Obesity Research, 10, 277–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Berenson, G.S., Srinivasan, S.R., Bao, W., Newman, W.P. 3rd, Tracey, R.E., & Wattigney, W.A. (1998). Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. The New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 1650–1656.Google Scholar
  4. Brunt, E.M. (2001). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: definition and pathology. Seminar in Liver Disease, 21, 3–16.Google Scholar
  5. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook (2008). Washington DC (February 10, 2009); https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tw.html.
  6. Chang, L.Y., Li, H.Y., Wei, J.N., & Chuang, L.M. (2006). Type 2 diabetes and obesity in children and adolescents: experience from studies in Taiwanese population. Current Diabetes Reviews, 2, 185–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen, W. (1997). Childhood obesity in Taiwan. Zhonghua Min Guo Xiao Er Ke Yi Xue Za Zhi, 38, 438–442.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, L.J., Fox, K.R., Haase, A., & Wang, J.M. (2006). Obesity, fitness and health in Taiwanese children and adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60, 1367–1375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chu, N.F. (2005). Prevalence of obesity in Taiwan. Obesity Reviews, 6, 271–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chu, F.N., & Pan, W.H. (2007). Prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities among schoolchildren in Taiwan. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 16(Suppl 2), 601–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Chu, N.F., Rimm, E.B., Wang, D.J., Liou, H.S., & Shieh, S.M. (1998). Clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among obese schoolchildren: the Taipei Children Heart Study. American Journal Clinical Nutrition, 67, 1141–1146.Google Scholar
  12. Chuang, C.H., Chang, P.J., Hsieh, W.S., Guo, Y.L., Lin, S.H., Lin, S.J., & Chen, P.C. (2007). The combined effect of employment status and transcultural marriage on breast feeding: a population-based survey in Taiwan. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 21, 319–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cockram, C. (2000). The epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in the Asia-Pacific region. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 6, 43–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Colditz, G.A. (1999). Economic costs of obesity and inactivity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(11 Suppl), S663–S667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cole, T.J., Bellizzi, M.C., Flegal, K.M., & Dietz, W.H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. British Medical Journal, 320, 1240–1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook, S., Weitzman, M., Auinger, P., Nguyen, M., & Dietz, W.H. (2003). Prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype in adolescents: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 157, 821–827.Google Scholar
  17. Daniels, S.R., Arnett, D.K., Eckel, R.H., Gidding, S.S., Hayman, L.L., Kumanyika, S., Robinson, T.N., Scott, B.J., St Jeor, S., & Williams, C.L. (2005). Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. Circulation, 111, 1999–2012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. de Ferranti, S.D., Gauvreau, K., Ludwig, D.S., Neufeld, E.J., Newburger, J.W., & Rifai, N. (2004). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in American adolescents: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Circulation, 110, 2494–2497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. de Silva, K.S., Wickramasinghe, V.P., & Gooneratne, I.N. (2006). Metabolic consequences of childhood obesity – a preliminary report. The Ceylon Medical Journal, 51, 105–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Denney-Wilson, E., Hardy, L.L., Dobbins, T., Okely, A.D., & Baur, L.A. (2008). Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and chronic disease risk factors in Australian adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162, 566–573.Google Scholar
  21. Deurenberg, P., Yap, M., & van Staveren, W.A. (1998). Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 22, 1164–1171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Deurenberg-Yap, M., Schmidit, G., van Staveren, W.A., & Deurenberg, P. (2000). The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 24, 1011–1017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Deurenberg-Yap, M., Chew, S.K., Lin, V.F., Tan, B.Y., van Staveren, W.A., & Deurenberg, P. (2001). Relationships between indices of obesity and its co-morbidities in multi-ethnic Singapore. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 25, 1554–1562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dieu, H.T., Dibley, M.J., Sibbritt, D., & Hanh, T.T. (2007). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in preschool children and associated socio-demographic factors in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 2, 40–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Drewnowski, A., & Popkin, B.M. (1997). The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet. Nutrition Reviews, 55, 31–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Duong, D.V., Binns, C.W., & Lee, A.H. (2004). Breast-feeding initiation and exclusive breast-feeding in rural Vietnam. Public Health Nutrition, 7, 795–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Duong, D.V., Lee, A.H., & Binns, C.W. (2005). Determinants of breast-feeding within the first 6 months post-partum in rural Vietnam. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 41, 338–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Foo, L.L., Quek, S.J., Ng, S.A., Lim, M.T., & Deurenberg-Yap, M. (2005). Breastfeeding prevalence and practices among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers. Health Promotion International, 20, 229–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ford, E.S., Giles, W.H., & Dietz, W.H. (2002). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, 356–359.Google Scholar
  30. Forman, M.R. (1984). Review of research on the factors associated with choice and duration of infant feeding in less-develop countries. Pediatrics, 74, 667–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Freedman, D.S., Dietz, W.H., Srinivasan, S.R., & Berenson, G.S. (1999a). The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics, 103, 1175–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Freedman, D.S., Serdula, M.K., Srinivasan, S.R., & Berenson, G.S. (1999b). Relation of circumferences and skinfold thicknesses to lipid and insulin concentrations in children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 308–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gill, T.P. (2005). Obesity in Asian populations. In P.G. Kopelman, I.D. Caterson & W.H. Dietz (Eds.), Clinical obesity in adults and children (pp. 431–442). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  34. Gill, T. (2006). Epidemiology and health impact of obesity: an Asia Pacific perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 15(Suppl), 3–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Guillaume, M. (1999). Defining obesity in childhood: current practice. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 126S–130S.Google Scholar
  36. Gurrici, S., Hartriyanti, Y., Hautvast, J.G., & Deurenberg, P. (1998). Relationship between body fat and body mass index: differences between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 52, 779–783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hangchaovanich, Y., & Voramongkol, N. (2006). Breastfeeding promotion in Thailand. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 89(Suppl 4), S173–S177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hatano, Y., Hua, Z.D., Jiang, L.D., Fu, F.H., Zhi, C.J., & Wei, S.D. (1997). Comparative study of physical fitness of the youth in Asia and their attitude towards sports. Journal of Physical Education and Recreation (Hong Kong), 3, 4–11.Google Scholar
  39. He, J., Klag, M.J., Whelton, P.K., Chen, J.Y., Qian, M.C., & He, G.Q. (1994). Body mass and blood pressure in a lean population in southwestern China. American Journal of Epidemiology, 139, 380–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Himes, J.H., & Dietz, W.H. (1994). Guidelines for overweight in adolescent preventive services: recommendations from an expert committee. The Expert Committee on Clinical Guidelines for Overweight in Adolescent Preventive Services. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, 307–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ho, T.F. (1987). Childhood obesity in Singapore school children: Epidemiology, anthropometry and selected medical problems (MD Thesis, National University of Singapore, 1987).Google Scholar
  42. Hong, T.K., Dibley, M.J., Sibbritt, D., Binh, P.N., Trang, N.H., & Hanh, T.T. (2007). Overweight and obesity are rapidly emerging among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2002–2004. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 2, 194–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Huang, Y.C., Wu, J.Y., & Yang, M.J. (2003). Weight-for-height reference and the prevalence of obesity for school children and adolescents in Taiwan and Fuchien Areas. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 66, 599–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. International Association for the Study of Obesity IASO, International Obesity Task Force IOTF (2004). EU childhood obesity “out of control”. IOTF Childhood Obesity Report May 2004. London: IASO International Obesity Task Force.Google Scholar
  45. International Association for the Study of Obesity IASO, International Obesity Task Force IOTF (2008a). Global childhood overweight. London (October 2008); http://www.iotf.org/database/index.asp.
  46. International Association for the Study of Obesity IASO, International Obesity Task Force IOTF (2008b). Global obesity prevalence in adults. London (December 2008); http://www.iotf.org/database/index.asp.
  47. Ishikawa-Takata, K., Ohta, T., Moritaki, K., Gotou, T., & Inoue, S. (2002). Obesity, weight change and risks for hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia in Japanese men. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56, 601–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kearney, M.H., & Cronenwett, L. (1991). Breastfeeding and employment. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 20, 471–480.Google Scholar
  49. Khor, G.L. (2003). Update on the prevalence of malnutrition among children in Asia. Nepal Medical College Journal, 5, 13–22.Google Scholar
  50. Kim, H.M., Park, J., Kim, H.S., Kim, D.H., & Park, S.H. (2006). Obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean children and adolescents aged 10–18 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998 and 2001. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164, 787–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ko, G.T., Chan, J.C., Cockram, C.S., & Woo, J. (1999). Prediction of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or albuminuria using simple anthropometric indexes in Hong Kong Chinese. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23, 1136–1142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ko, G.T., Tang, J., Chan, J.C., Sung, R., Wu, M.M., Wai, H.P., & Chen, R. (2001). Lower BMI cut-off value to define obesity in Hong Kong Chinese: an analysis based on body fat assessment by bioelectrical impedance. The British Journal of Nutrition, 85, 239–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Labarere, J., Gelbert-Baudino, N., Ayral, A.S., Duc, C., Berchotteau, M., Bouchon, N., Schelstraete, C., Vittoz, J.P., Francois, P., & Pons, J.C. (2005). Efficacy of breastfeeding support provided by trained clinicians during an early, routine, preventive visit: a prospective, randomized, open trial of 226 mother-infant pairs. Pediatrics, 115, e139–e146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Laisiriruangrai, P., Wiriyasirivaj, B., Phaloprakarn, C., & Manusirivithaya, S. (2008). Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 3, 4 and 6 months in Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Medical College and Vajira Hospital. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 91, 962–967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Langendijk, G., Wellings, S., van Wyk, M., Thompson, S.J., McComb, J., & Chusilp, K. (2003). The prevalence of childhood obesity in primary school children in urban Khon Kaen, northeast Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 12, 66–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lee, W.R. (2000). The changing demography of diabetes mellitus in Singapore. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 50(Suppl 2), S35–S39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lee, Z.S., Critchley, J.A., Ko, G.T., Anderson, P.J., Thomas, G.N., Young, R.P., Chan, T.Y., Cockram, C.S., Tomlinson, B., & Chan, J.C. (2002). Obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in Hong Kong Chinese. Obesity Reviews, 3, 173–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lee, W.T., Lui, S.S., Chan, V., Wong, E., & Lau, J. (2006a). A population-based survey on infant feeding practice (0–2 years) in Hong Kong: breastfeeding rate and patterns among 3,161 infants below 6 months old. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 15, 377–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lee, Y.S., Kek, B.L.K., Poh, L.K.S., Vaithinathan, R., Saw, S.M., & Loke, K.Y. (2006b). Characterisation of metabolic consequences in severely obese children. Paediatric endocrinology: looking into the future (pp. 92). Bangkok: Asia Pacific Paediatric Endocrine Society 2006 (4th Biennial scientific meeting Asia Pacific Paediatric Endocrine Society 2006, 1–4 Nov 2006, Cliff Resort Hotel, Pattaya, Thailand).Google Scholar
  60. Lee, W.T., Wong, E., Lui, S.S., Chan, V., & Lau, J. (2007). Decision to breastfeed and early cessation of breastfeeding in infants below 6 months old – a population-based study of 3,204 infants in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 16, 163–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lee, Y.S., Kek, B.L.K., Poh, L.K.S., Saw, S.M., & Loke, K.Y. (2008). Association of raised liver transaminases with physical inactivity, increased waist-hip ratio and other metabolic morbidities in severely obese children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 47, 172–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Leung, E.Y., Au, K.Y., Cheng, S.S., Kok, S.Y., Lui, H.K., & Wong, W.C. (2006). Practice of breastfeeding and factors that affect breastfeeding in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 12, 432–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Li, Y., Kong, L., Hotta, M., Wongkhomthong, S.A., & Ushijima, H. (1999). Breast-feeding in Bangkok, Thailand: current status, maternal knowledge, attitude and social support. Pediatrics International, 41, 648–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Li, G., Chen, X., Jang, Y., Wang, J., Xing, X., Yang, W., & Hu, Y. (2002a). Obesity, coronary heart disease risk factors and diabetes in Chinese: an approach to the criteria of obesity in the Chinese population. Obesity Reviews, 3, 167–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Li, L., Thi Phuong Lan, D., Hoa, N.T., & Ushijima, H. (2002b). Prevalence of breast-feeding and its correlates in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Pediatrics International, 44, 47–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Li, Y.P., Yang, X.G., Zhai, F.Y., Piao, J.H., Zhao, W.H., Zhang, J., & Ma, G.S. (2005). Disease risks of childhood obesity in China. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 18, 401–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Li, Y., Yang, X., Zhai, F., Piao, J., Zhao, W., Zhang, J., & Ma, G. (2008). Childhood obesity and its health consequence in China. Obesity Reviews, 9(Suppl 1), 82–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Likitmaskul, S., Kiattisathavee, P., Chaichanwatanakul, K., Punnakanta, L., Angsusingha, K., & Tuchinda, C. (2003). Increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Thai children and adolescents associated with increasing prevalence of obesity. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 16, 71–77.Google Scholar
  69. Macfarlane, D.J., & Tomkinson, G.R. (2007). Evolution and variability in fitness test performance of Asian children and adolescents. Medicine and Sport Science, 50, 143–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mahoney, L.T., Burns, T.L., & Stanford, W. (1996). Coronary risk factors in childhood and young adult life are associated with coronary artery calcification in young adults: the Muscatine Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 27, 277–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Meshizuka, T., & Nakanishi, M. (1972). A report on the results of the ICSPFT performance test applied to the people in Asian countries. In U. Simri (Ed.), Proceedings of the ACSPFT and the ICSPFT – 1972. Wingate Institute for Physical Education and Sport (pp. 7–23). Israel.Google Scholar
  72. Misra, A. (2003). Body composition and the metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians: a saga of multiple adversities. The National Medical Journal of India, 16, 3–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Misra, A., Vikram, N.K., Arya, S., Pandey, R.M., Dhingra, V., Chatterjee, A., Dwivedi, M., Sharma, R., Luthra, K., Guleria, R., & Talwar, K.K. (2004). High prevalence of insulin resistance in postpubertal Asian Indian children is associated with adverse truncal body fat patterning, abdominal adiposity and excess body fat. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 28, 1217–1226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Misra, A., Wasir, J.S., & Pandey, R.M. (2005). An evaluation of candidate definitions of the metabolic syndrome in adult Asian Indians. Diabetes Care, 28, 398–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mohan, V., Shanthirani, S., Deepa, R., Premalatha, G., Sastry, N.G., & Saroja, R. (2001). Intra-urban differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in southern India – the Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS No. 4). Diabetic Medicine, 18, 280–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Mohan, B., Kumar, N., Aslam, N., Rangbulla, A., Kumbkarni, S., Sood, N.K., & Wander, G.S. (2004). Prevalence of sustained hypertension and obesity in urban and rural school going children in Ludhiana. Indian Heart Journal, 56, 310–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Moon, O.R., Kim, N.S., Jang, S.M., Yoon, T.H., & Kim, S.O. (2002). The relationship between body mass index and the prevalence of obesity-related diseases based on the 1995 National Health Interview Survey in Korea. Obesity Reviews, 3, 191–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mosberg, H.O. (1989). 40 year follow up of overweight children. Lancet, ii, 491–493.Google Scholar
  79. Mo-suwan, L., Junjana, C., & Puetpaiboon, A. (1993). Increasing obesity in school children in a transitional society and the effect of the weight control program. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 24, 590–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mo-suwan, L., Tongkumchum, P., & Puetpaiboon, A. (2000). Determinants of overweight tracking from childhood to adolescence: a 5 y follow-up study of Hat Yai schoolchildren. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 24, 1642–1647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Must, A., Dallal, G.E., & Dietz, W.H. (1991). Reference data for obesity: 85th and 95th percentile of body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53, 839–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Must, A., Jacques, P.F., Dallal, G.E., Bajema, C.J., Dietz, W.H. (1992). Long term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. The New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 1350–1355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Nieto, F.J., Szklo, M., & Comstock, G.W. (1992). Childhood weight and growth rate as predictors of adult mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, 136, 201–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Noble, S. (2001). Maternal employment and the initiation of breastfeeding. Acta Paediatrica, 90, 923–928.Google Scholar
  85. Pan, W.H, & Lee, M.S. (2007). The double malnutritional burden and regional disparities in Taiwan elementary school children: survey database and reference values. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 16(Suppl 2), 478–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Panpanich, R., Vitsupakorn, K., & Brabin, B. (2003). Breastfeeding and its relation to child nutrition in rural Chiang Mai, Thailand. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 86, 415–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Popkin, B.M., Paeratakul, S., Ge, K., & Zhai, F. (1995). Body weight patterns among the Chinese: results from the 1989 and 1991 China Health and Nutrition Surveys. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 690–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Raj, V.K., & Plichta, S.B. (1998). The role of social support in breastfeeding promotion: a literature review. Journal of Human Lactation, 14, 41–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ramachandran, A., Snehalatha, C., Satyavani, K., Sivasankari, S., & Vijay, V. (2003). Metabolic syndrome in urban Asian Indian adults – a population study using modified ATP III criteria. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 60, 199–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Reddy, K.S., Prabhakaran, D., Shah, P., & Shah, B. (2002). Differences in body mass index and waist: hip ratios in North Indian rural and urban populations. Obesity Reviews, 3, 197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Roberts, E.A. (2002). Streatohepatitis in children. Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 16, 749–765.Google Scholar
  92. Roglic, G., & King, H. (2000). Diabetes mellitus in Asia. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 6, 10–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rössner, S. (2002). Obesity: the disease of the twenty-first century. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26(Suppl 4), S2-S4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ryan, A.S. (1997). The resurgence of breastfeeding in the United States. Pediatrics, 99, e12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Ryu, S.Y., Kweon, S.S., Park, H.C., Shin, J.H., & Rhee, J.A. (2007). Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 22, 513–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Sakamoto, N., Wansorn, S., Tontisirin, K., & Marui, E. (2001). A social epidemiologic study of obesity among preschool children in Thailand. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 25, 389–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Scott, J.A., Landers, M.C.G., Hughes, R.M., & Binns, C.W. (2001a). Factors associated with breastfeeding at discharge and duration of breastfeeding. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 37, 254–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Scott, J.A., Landers, M.C., Hughes, R.M., & Binns, C.W. (2001b). Psychosocial factors associated with the abandonment of breastfeeding prior to hospital discharge. Journal of Human Lactation, 17, 24–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Seidell, J.C. (1995). The impact of obesity on health status: some implications for health care costs. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 19(Suppl 6), S13–S16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Sicree, R., Shaw, J.E., & Zimmet, P.Z. (2003). The global burden of diabetes, In D. Gan (Ed.), Diabetes atlas (pp. 15–71). Brussels: International Diabetes Federation.Google Scholar
  101. Sung, R.Y.T., Tong, P.C., Yu, C.W., Lau, P.W., Mok, G.T., Yam, M.C., Lam, P.K., & Chan, J.C. (2003). High prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese preadolescent Hong Kong Chinese children aged 9–12 Years. Diabetes Care, 26, 250–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Tang, H.K., Dibley, M.J., Sibbritt, D., & Tran, H.M. (2007). Gender and socio-economic differences in BMI of secondary high school students in Ho Chi Minh city. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16, 74–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Tee, E.S., Khor, S.C., Ooi, H.E., Young, S.I., Zakiyah, O., & Zulkafli, H. (2002). Regional study of nutritional status of urban primary schoolchildren. 3. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 23, 41–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Treloar, C., Porteous, J., Hassan, F., Kasniyah, N., Lakshmanudu, M., Sama, M., Sja’bani, M., & Heller, R.C. (1999). The cross cultural context of obesity: an INCLEN multicentre collaborative study. Health Place, 5, 279–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Truong, S.A., Ngo, T.T., Knodel, J., Le, H., & Tran, T.T. (1995). Infant feeding practices in Viet Nam. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 10, 3–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Tuan, N.T., Tuong, P.D., & Popkin, B.M. (2008). Body mass index (BMI) dynamics in Vietnam. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 78–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. United Nations Development Program (2008). Human Development Report 2007/2008. New York (18 December 2008); http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics.
  108. United Nations Statistics Division (2005). Demographic Yearbook 2005. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistical Office, United Nations.Google Scholar
  109. Vikram, N.K., Misra, A., Pandey, R.M., Luthra, K., Wasir, J.S., & Dhingra, V. (2006). Heterogeneous phenotypes of insulin resistance and its implications for defining metabolic syndrome in Asian Indian adolescents. Atherosclerosis, 186, 193–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Visness, C.M., & Kennedy, K.I. (1997). Maternal employment and breastfeeding: findings from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 945–950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Vivian, E.M. (2006). Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents – the next epidemic? Current Medical Research and Opinion, 22, 297–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Vogel, A., Hutchison, B.L., & Mitchell, E.A. (1999). Factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding. Acta Paediatrica, 88, 1320–1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Wang, J., Thornton, J.C., Russell, M., Burastero, S., Heymsfield, S., & Pierson, R.N. Jr. (1994). Asians have lower body mass index (BMI) but higher percent body fat than do whites: comparisons of anthropometric measurements. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60, 23–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Wei, J.N., Chuang, L.M., Lin, C.C., Chiang, C.C., Lin, R.S., & Sung, F.C. (2003). Childhood diabetes identified in mass urine screening program in Taiwan, 1993–1999. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 59, 201–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. WHO Expert Consultation (2004). Appropriate body mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet, 363, 157–163.Google Scholar
  116. WHO Fact Sheet EURO/13/05 (2005). The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region. Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  117. WHO Fact Sheet No. 311 (2006). Obesity and overweight (Sept 2006). Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  118. WHO World Health Report (1998). Life in the 21st century: a vision for all (p. 132). Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  119. World Health Organization (2001). The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Report of an Expert Consultation 28–30 March 2001. Geneva: WHO; http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/WHO_NHD_01.09/en/print.html.
  120. World Health Organization (2007). WHO Statistical Information System. Geneva (February 6, 2009); http://www.who.int/whosis/en/index.html.
  121. Yoon, K.H., Lee, J.H., Kim, J.W., Cho, J.H., Choi, Y.H., Ko, S.H., Zimmet, P., & Son, H.Y. (2006). Epidemic obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asia. Lancet, 368, 1681–1688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Zalilah, M.S., Mirnalini, K., Khor, G.L., Merlin, A., Bahaman, A.S., & Norimah, K. (2006). Estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents. Medical Journal of Malaysia, 61, 48–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Weight Management Clinic, International ChildGleneagles HospitalSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations