Environmental Implications of Nano-manufacturing



Green manufacturing for nanotechnologies must be considered, while it is most impactful to do so, during early development and early application stage. There are still a lot of challenges in applying conventional green theories and methodologies to nano-manufacturing technologies, particularly for their overall sustainability assessment and improvement. This chapter provides a basic overview of potential environmental impacts associated with nanotechnology and its manufacturing processes. The fundamental knowledge and scientific methods useful in understanding the environmental impacts of nanotechnology from a holistic view are discussed. A few examples on environmental studies of nano-manufacturing technologies are provided as well. A systematic view of the potential environmental impacts of nano-manufacturing will be helpful for guiding future research in this subject.


Life Cycle Assessment Atomic Layer Deposition Life Cycle Impact Assessment Environmental Impact Assessment Human Health Impact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) (2006) What is nanotechnology? Company website. http://www.nano.gov/html/facts/whatIsNano.html. Accessed 25 Dec 2009
  2. 2.
    Wetter KJ (2010) Big continent and tiny technology: nanotechnology and Africa. Foreign policy in focus, Washington, DC, October 15Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Project on Emerging Nanotechnology (2006) Inventory of nanotechnology consumer products. http://www.nanotechproject.org/inventories/consumer/. Accessed Jan 2 2010
  4. 4.
    Dresselhaus MS, Dresselhaus G, Jorio A (2004) Unusual properties and structure of carbon nanotubes. Annu Rev Mater Res 34:247–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wardak A, Gorman ME, Swami N, Deshpande S (2008) Identification of risks in the life cycle of nanotechnology-based products. J Ind Ecol 12(3):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sweet L, Strohm B (2006) Nanotechnology-life cycle risk management. Human Ecol Risk Assess 12:528–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang X, Sun C, Fang N (2004) Manufacturing at nanoscale: top-down, bottom-up and system engineering. J Nanoparticle Res 6:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sengül H, Theis TL, Ghosh S (2008) Toward sustainable nanoproducts: an overview of nanomanufacturing methods. J Ind Ecol 12(3):329–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dowling A (2004) Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: opportunities and uncertainties. Summary and recommendations. The Royal Society & The Royal Academy of Engineering, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sequeira R, Genaidy A, Shell R, Karwowski W, Weckman G, Salem S (2006) The nano enterprise: a survey of health and safety concerns, considerations, and proposed improvement strategies to reduce potential adverse effects. Human Fact Ergonom Manuf 16(4):343–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bergeson LL, Auerbach B (2004) Reading the small print. Environ Forum 21(2):30–40Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    International Energy Agency (2008) World energy outlook, executive summary. Retrieved from http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/2008.asp. Accessed 8 Nov 2010
  13. 13.
    Gutowski T, Dahmus J, Thiriez A (2006) Electrical energy requirements for manufacturing processes. 13th CIRP international conference on life cycle engineering, Leuven, Belgium May-JuneGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kushnir D, Sanden BA (2008) Energy requirements of carbon nanoparticle production. J Ind Ecol 12:360–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Srituravanich W, Fang N, Sun C, Luo Q, Zhang X (2004) Plasmonic nanolithography. Nano letters 4(6):1085–1088Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu Z, Steele JM, Srituravanich W, Pikus Y, Sun C, Zhang X (2005) Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens. Nano Lett 5(9):1726–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lim B, Rahtu A, Gordon R (2003) Atomic layer deposition of transition metals. Nat Mater 2:749–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Puurunen RL (2005) Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: a case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process. J Appl Phys 97:121301–121352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sneh O, Clark-Phelps RB, Londergan AR, Winkler J, Seidel TE (2002) Thin film atomic layer deposition equipment for semiconductor processing. Thin Solid Films 402(2):248–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Emmanuel AE (1993) On the definition of power factor and apparent power in unbalanced polyphase circuits with sinusoidal voltage and currents. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 8(3):841–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bottorff TE (2006) Commercial/industrial/general schedule E-19 medium general demandmetered time-of-use service. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang TW, Bates SW, Dornfeld DA (2007) Operational energy use of plasmonic imaging lithography. Proceedings of the IEEE international symposium on electronics and environment, MayGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cabrini S (Senior scientist) (2007) Center of x-ray optics and molecular foundry. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Personal communication, 19 JanuaryGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marrian CRK, Tennant DM (2003) Nanofabrication. J Vac Sci Technol A 21(5):5207–5215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferguson JD, Weimer AW, George SM (2000) Atomic layer deposition of ultrathin and conformal Al2O3. Films on BN particles. Thin Solid Films 371:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ott AW, Klaus JW, Johnson JM, George SM, McCarley KC, Way JD (1997) Modification of porous alumina membranes using Al2O3 atomic layer controlled deposition. Chem Mater 9:707–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang T (2007) Life cycle assessment strategies for emerging technologies: a case study in plasmonic imaging lithography. MS thesis, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Matero R, Rahtu A, Ritala M, Leskela M, Sajavaara T (2000) Effect of water dose on the atomic layer deposition rate of oxide thin films. Thin Solid Films 368:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yuan YC, Dornfeld D (2010) Schematic method for sustainable material selection of toxic chemicals in design and manufacturing. ASME J Mech Des 132(9)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yuan YC, Dornfeld D (2010) Integrated sustainability analysis of atomic layer deposition for microelectronics manufacturing. ASME J Manuf Sci Eng 132(3)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sheppard L, Abraham T (2005) Evolving dielectrics in semiconductor devices. Retrieved from http://www.altfuels.com/report/SMC040B.html. Accessed 10 Sept 2009
  32. 32.
    Business Communications Co. (2005) Nanomaterials market by type. Retrieved from http://www.marketresearch.com/product/print/default.asp?g=1%26;productid=1197081. Accessed 8 Nov 2010
  33. 33.
    Dreher KL (2004) Health and environmental impact of nanotechnology: toxicological assessment of manufactured nanoparticles. Toxicol Sci 77:3–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (2007) Progress toward safe nanotechnology in the workplace. Publication No. 2007–123. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NIOSH, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Krishnan N, Boyd S, Somani A, Raoux S, Clark D, Dornfeld D (2008) A hybrid life cycle inventory of nano-scale semiconductor manufacturing. Environ Sci Technol 42(8):3069–3075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Healy M, Dahlben L, Isaacs J (2008) Environmental assessment of single-walled carbon nanotube processes. J Ind Ecol 12(3):376–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Khanna V, Bakshi BR, Lee LJ (2008) Carbon nanofiber production: life cycle energy consumption and environmental impact. J Ind Ecol 12(3):394–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    ISO (International Standard Organization) (1997) ISO 14040: Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—principles and framework. International Standard ISO 14040. ISO, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.University of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations