Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds from biological sources, usually extracellular, produced by bacteria, yeast or fungi. Research on biological surfactant production has grown significantly due to the advantages they present over synthetic compounds such as biodegradability, low toxicity, diversity of applications and functionality under extreme conditions. Although the majority of microbial surfactants have been reported in bacteria, the pathogenic nature of some producers restricts the wide application of these compounds.
A growing number of aspects related to the production of biosurfactants from yeasts have been the topic of research during the last decade. Given the industrial importance of yeasts and their potential to biosurfactant production, the goal of this chapter is to review the biosurfactants identified up to present, focusing the relevant parameters that influence biosurfactant production by yeasts and its characteristics, revealing the potential of application of such compounds in the industrial field and presenting some directions for the future development of this area, taking into account the production costs.
- Biosurfactant Production
- Yeast Extract Concentration
- Candida Lipolytica
- Glycolipid Biosurfactants
- Mannosylerythritol Lipid
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Lin SC. Biosurfactants: Recent advances. J Chem Tech Biotechnol 1996; 66:109–120.
Banat IM, Makkar IM, Cameotra SS. Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2000; 53:495–508.
Cirigliano MC, Carman GM, Isolation of a bioemulsifier from Candida lipolytica. Appl Environ Microbiol 1984; 48:747–750.
Zinjarde SS, Pant A. Emulsifier from a tropical marine yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. J Basic Microbiol 2002; 42:67–73.
Sarubbo LA, Farias CBB, Campos-Takaki GM. Co-utilization of canola oil and glucose on the production of a surfactant by Candida lipolytica. Current Microbiology 2007; 54:68–73.
Amaral PFF, Lehocky M, da Silva JM et al. Production and characterization of a bioemulsifier from Yarrowia lipolytica. Process Biochem 2006; 41:1894–1898.
Sheperd R, Rockey J, Sutherland I et al. Novel bioemulsifiers from microorganisms for use in foods. J Biotechnol 1995; 40:207–17.
Barth G, Gaillard C. Physiology and genetics of the dimorphic fungus Yarrowia lipolytica. FEMS Microbiol Rev 1997; 19:219–37.
Rufino RD, Sarubbo LA, Campos-Takaki GM. Enhancement of stability of biosurfactant produced by Candida lipolytica using industrial residue as substrate. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2007; 23:729–734.
Rosenberg E, Ron EZ. High-and low-molecular-mass microbial surfactants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1999; 52:154–162.
Casas J, Ochoa FG. Sophorolipid production by Candida bombicola: medium composition and culture methods. J Biosci Bioeng 1999; 88:488–94.
Cavalero DA, Cooper DG. The effect of medium composition on the structure and physical state of sophorolipids produced by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214. J Biotechnol 2003; 103:31–41.
Cooper DG, Paddock DA. Torulopsis petrophilum and surface activity. Appl Environ Microbiol 1983; 46:1426–1429.
Hommel RK, Weber L, Weiss A et al. Production of sophorose lipid by Candida (Torulopsis) apicola grown on glucose. J Biotechnol 1994; 33:147–55.
Weber L, Doge C, Haufe G. Oxygenation of hexadecane in the biosynthesis of cyclic glycolipids in Torulopsis apicola. Biocatal 1992; 5:267–72.
Cooper DG, Paddock DA. Production of a biosurfactant from Torulopsis bombicola. Appl Environ Microbiol 1984; 47:173–76.
Kitamoto D, Fuzishiro T, Yanagishita H et al. Production of mannosylerythritol lipids as biosurfactants by resting cells of Candida antarctica. Biotechnol Lett 1992; 14:305–310.
Morita T, Konish M, Fukuoka T et al. Discovery of Pseudozyma rugulosa NBRC 10877 as a novel producer of the glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, based on rDNA sequence. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2006; 73:305–13.
Sarubbo LA, Marçal MC, Neves MLC et al. Bioemulsifier production in batch culture using glucose as carbon source by Candida lipolytica. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2001; 95:59–67.
Zinjarde SS, Chinnathambi S, Lachke AH et al. Isolation of an emulsifier from Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 using a modified mini isoeletric focusing unit. Lett Appl Microbiol 1997; 24:117–121.
Cirigliano MC, Carman GM. Purification and characterization of liposan, a bioemulsifier from Candida lipolytica. Appl Environ Microbiol 1985; 50:846–50.
Cameron DR, Cooper DG, Neufeld RJ. The mannoprotein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an effective bioemulsifier. Appl Environ Microbiol 1988; 54:1420–25.
Cooper DG. Biosurfactants. Microbiological Sciences 1986; 3:145–9.
Kim HS, Yoon BD, Choung DD et al. Characterization of a biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid produced from Candida sp. SY16. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1999; 52:713–21.
Sarubbo LA, Luna JM, Campos-Takaki GM. Production and stability studies of the bioemulsifier obtained from a new strain of Candida glabrata UCP 1002. Eletronic Journal of Biotechnology 2006; 9:400–406.
Pareilleux A. Hydrocarbon assimilation by Candida lipolytica: formation of a biosurfactant; effects on respiratory activity and growth. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1979; 8:91–101.
Lukondeh T, Ashbolt NJ, Rogers PL. Evaluation of Kluyveromyces marxianus as a source of yeast autolysates. J Ind Microbiol Biotech 2003; 30:52–56.
Desai JD, Banat IN. Microbial production of surfactants and their commercial potential. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1997; 61:47–64.
Syldatk C, Wagner F. Production of biosurfactant. In: Kosaric N, Cairns WL, Gray NCC, eds. Biosurfactants and Biotechnology, 1st ed. New York: Marcel Dekker 1987:89–120.
Kitamoto D, Ikegami T, Suzuki GT et al. Microbial conversion of n-alkanes into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma (Candida antarctica). Biotechnol Lett 2001; 23:1709–14.
Gallert C, Winter J. Solid and liquid residues as raw materials for biotechnology. Naturwissenschaften 2002; 89:483–96.
Maneerat S. Production of biosurfactants using substrates from renewable-resources. Songklanakarin J Sci Technolol 2005; 27:675–83.
Makkar RS, Cameotra SS. An update on the use of unconventional substrates for biosurfactant production and their new applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2002; 58:428–34.
Bednarski W, Adamczak M, Tomasik J et al. Application of oil refinery waste in the biosynthesis of glycolipids by yeast. Bioresour Technol 2004; 95:15–18.
Solaiman DKY, Ashby RD, Nunez A et al. Production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola grown on soy molasses as substrate. Biotechnol Lett 2004; 26:1241–1245.
Haba E, Espuny MJ, Busquets M et al. Screening and production of rhamnolipids Pseudomonas aeruginosa 47T2 NCIB 40044 from waste frying oils. J Appl Microbiol 2000; 88:379–387.
Thanomsub B, Watcharachaipong T, Chotelersak K et al. Monoacylglycerols: glycolipid biosurfactants produced by a thermotolerant yeast, Candida ishiwadae. J Appl Microbiol 2004; 96:588–92.
Deshpande M, Daniels L. Evaluation of sophorolipid biosurfactant production by Candida bombicola using animal fat. Bioresour Technol 1995; 54:143–50.
Meesters PAEP, Huijberts GNM, Eggink G. High-cell-density cultivation of the lipid accumulating yeast cryptococcus curvatus using glycerol as a carbon source. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1996; 45:575–79.
Morita T, Konish M, Fukuoka T et al. Microbial conversion of glycerol into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by a basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317. J Biosci Bioeng 2007; 104:78–81.
Ashby RD, Nunez A, Solaiman DKY et al. Sophorolipid biosynthesis from a biodiesel coproduct stream. J of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 2005; 9:625–30.
Daniel HJ, Reuss M, Syldatk C. Production of sophorolipids in high concentration from deproteinized whey and rapeseed oil in a two stage fed batch process using candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509. Biotechnol Lett 1998; 20:1153–56.
Vance—Harrop MHV, Gusmão NB, Takaki GMC. New bioemulsifiers produced by candida lipolytica using d-glucose and babassu oil as carbon sources. Br J Microbiol 2003; 34:120–23.
Kim HS, Jeon JW, Kim BH et al. Extracellular production of a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, by candida sp. SY16 using fed-batch fermentation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2006; 70:391–96.
Adamczak M, Bednarski W. Influence of medium composition and aeration on the synthesis of biosurfactants produced by candida antarctica. Biotechnol Lett 2000; 22:313–16.
Chen J, Song X, Zhang H et al. Production, structure elucidation and anticancer properties of sophorolipid from wickerhamiella domercqiae. Enzyme Microb Technol 2006; 39:501–6.
Amézcua—Vega CA, Varaldo PHM, García F et al. Effect of culture conditions on fatty acids composition of a biosurfactant produced by candida ingens and changes of surface tension of culture media. Bioresour Technol 2007; 98:237–40.
Mata-sandoval JC, Karns J, Torrens A. Effect of nutritional and environmental conditions on the production and composition of rhamnolipids by P. aeruginosa UG2. Microbiol Res 2001; 155:249–56.
Johnson V, Singh M, Saini VS. Bioemulsifier production by an oleaginous yeast rhodotorulaglutinis IIP-30. Biotechnol Lett 1992; 14:487–90.
Albuquerque CDC, Filetti AMF, Campos-Takaki GM. Optimizing the medium components in bioemulsifiers production by candida lipolytica with response surface method. Can J Microbiol 2006; 52:575–83.
Albrecht A, Rau U, Wagner F. Initial steps of sophoroselipid biosynthesis by candida bombicola ATCC 22214 grown on glucose. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1996; 46:67–73.
Singh M, Saini VS, Adhikari DK et al. Production of bioemulsifier by a SCP-producing strain of candida tropicalis during hydrocarbon fermentation. Biotechnol Lett 1990; 12:743–46.
Banat IM. Biosurfactants production and possible uses in microbial enhanced oil recovery and oil pollution remediation: A review. Biosource Technol 1995; 51:1–12.
Guilmanov V, Ballistreri A, Impallomeni G et al. Oxygen transfer rate and sophorose lipid production by candida bombicola. Biotechnol Bioeng 2002; 77:489.
Rau U, Nguyen LA, Roeper H et al. Fed-batch bioreactor production of mannosylerythritol lipids secreted by pseudozyma aphidis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2005; 68:607–13.
Volkering F, Breure A, Rulkens W. Microbiological aspects of surfactant use for biological soil remediation. Biodegradation 1997; 8:401–417.
Robinson K, Gosh M, Shu Z. Mineralization enhancement of non-aqueous phase and soil-bound pcb using biosurfactant. Water Sci Technol 1996; 34:303–9.
Rosenberg E, Ron EZ. Surface active polymers from the genus acinetobacter. In: Kaplan DL, ed. Biopolymers from Renewable Resources, 1st ed. New York: Springer 1998:281–291.
Hua Z, Chen Y, Du G et al. Effects of biosurfactants produced by candida antarctica on the biodegradation of petroleum compounds. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 2004; 20:25–29.
Freire MG, Dias AMA, Coelho MAZ et al. Aging mechanisms of perfluorocarbon emulsions using image analysis. J Colloid Interface Sci 2005; 286:224–232.
Torabizadeh H, Shojaosadati SA, Tehrani HA. Preparation and characterisation of bioemulsifier from saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application in food products. Lebensm-Wiss u-Technol 1996; 29:734–737.
Yamane T. Enzyme technology for the lipid industry. An engineering overview. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1987; 64:1657–1662.
Van Bogaert INA, Saerens K, De Muynck C et al. Microbial production and application of sophorolipids. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2007; 76:23–34.
Van Bogaert INA, De Maeseneire SL, De Schamphelaire W et al. Cloning, characterization and functionality of the orotidine-5⊠-phosphate decarboxylase gene (URA3) of the glycolipid-producing yeast candida bombicola. Yeast 2007; 24:201–208.
Tulloch AP, Spencer JFT, Deinema MH. A new hydroxy fatty acid sophoroside from candida bogoriensis. Can J Chem 1968; 46:345–48.
Kakugawa K, Tamai M, Imamura K et al. Isolation of yeast kurtzmanomyces sp. I-11, novel producer of mannosylerythritol lipid. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2002; 66:188–91.
Morita T, Konish M, Fukuoka T et al. Characterization of the genus pseudozyma by the formation of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids. FEMS Yeast Res 2007; 7:286–92.
Singh M, Desai JD. Hydrocarbon emulsification by candida tropicalis and debaryomyces polymorphus. Indian J Experimental Biol 1989; 27:224–26.
Yoon SH, Rhee JS. Lipid from yeast fermentation: Effects of cultural conditions on lipid production and its characteristics of rhodotorula glutinis. J American Oil Chemists’ Society 1983; 60:1281–6.
Editors and Affiliations
Rights and permissions
© 2010 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Amaral, P.F.F., Coelho, M.A.Z., Marrucho, I.M.J., Coutinho, J.A.P. (2010). Biosurfactants from Yeasts: Characteristics, Production and Application. In: Sen, R. (eds) Biosurfactants. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 672. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5979-9_18
Publisher Name: Springer, New York, NY
Print ISBN: 978-1-4419-5978-2
Online ISBN: 978-1-4419-5979-9
eBook Packages: Biomedical and Life SciencesBiomedical and Life Sciences (R0)