Advertisement

Bridging Conventional and Molecular Genetics of Sorghum Insect Resistance

  • Yinghua Huang
  • Hari C. Sharma
  • Mukesh K. Dhillon
Chapter
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 11)

Abstract

Sustainable production of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, depends on effective control of insect pests as they continue to compete with humans for the sorghum crop. Insect pests are a major constraint in sorghum production, and nearly 150 insect species are serious pests of this crop worldwide and cause more than 9% loss annually. Annual losses due to insect pests in sorghum have been estimated to be $1,089 million in the semiarid tropics (ICRISAT Annual report 1991. International Crop Research Institute for Semi-arid Tropics. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, 1992), but differing in magnitude on a regional basis. Key insect pests in the USA include the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani); sorghum midge, Stenodiplosis sorghicola (Coquillett); and various caterpillars in the Southern areas. For example, damage by greenbug to sorghum is estimated to cost US producers $248 million annually. The major insect pests of sorghum on a global basis are the greenbug, sorghum midge, sorghum shoot fly (Atherigona soccata Rond.), stem borers (Chilo partellus Swin. and Busseola fusca Fuller), and armyworms (Mythimna separata Walk and Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith). Recent advances in sorghum genetics, genomics, and breeding have led to development of some cutting-edge molecular technologies that are complementary to genetic improvement of this crop for insect pest management. Genome sequencing and genome mapping have accelerated the pace of gene discovery in sorghum. Other genomic technologies, such as QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping, gene expression profiling, functional genomics, and gene transfer are powerful tools for efficient identification of novel insect-resistance genes, and characterization of the key pathways that regulate the interactions between crop plants and insect pests leading to successful expression of the host plant defense. Traditional breeding methods, such as germplasm evaluation and enhancement, backcrossing, pedigree selection, and recurrent selection continue to play important roles in developing insect-resistant cultivars with major resistance genes; and new cultivars with enhanced resistance to several important insect pests are released continuously. Future research efforts should focus on identification of new sources of resistance, characterization of resistance genes, and dissecting the network of resistance gene regulation. Collaboration between research institutions and the sorghum industry as well as international cooperation in utilization of emerging knowledge and technologies will enhance the global efforts in insect pest management in sorghum.

Keywords

Insect Pest Methyl Jasmonate Stem Borer Restorer Line Maintainer Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

References

  1. Aruna C, Bhagwat VR, Madhusudhana R, Sharma V, Hussain T, Ghorade RB, Khandalkar HG, Audilakshmi S, Seetharama N (2011) Identification and validation of genomic regions that affect shoot fly resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Theor Appl Genet 122:1617–1630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhattramakki D, Dong J, Chhabra AK, Hart G (2000) An integrated SSR and RFLP linkage map of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Genome 43:988–1002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Borad PK, Mittal VP (1983) Assessment of losses caused by pest complex to sorghum hybrid CSH 5. In: Krishnamurthy Rao BH, Murthy KSRK (eds) Crop losses due to insect pests. Entomological Society of India, Andhra Pradesh, India, pp 271–278Google Scholar
  4. Bowers JE, Abbey C, Anderson S, Chang C, Draye X, Hoppe AH, Jessup R, Lemke C, Lennington J, Li Z, Lin Y-R, Liu S-C, Luo L, Marler BS, Ming R, Mitchell SE, Qiang D, Reischmann K, Schulze SR, Skinner DN, Wang Y-W, Kresovich S, Schertz KF, Paterson AH (2003) A high-density genetic recombination map of sequence-tagged sites for Sorghum, as a framework for comparative, structural and evolutionary genomics of tropical grains and grasses. Genetics 165:367–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Burd JD, Porter DR (2006) Biotypic diversity in greenbug (Hemiptera, Aphididae), characterizing new virulence and host associations. J Econ Entomol 99:959–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Casas AM, Kononowicz AK, Zehr UB, Tomes DT, Axtell JD, Butler LG, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM (1993) Transgenic sorghum plants via microprojectile bombardment. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 90:11212–11216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chittenden LM, Schertz KF, Lin YR, Wing RA, Paterson AH (1994) A detailed RFLP map of Sorghum bicolor × S. propinquum, suitable for high-density mapping, suggests ancestral duplication of Sorghum chromosomes or chromosomal segments. Theor Appl Genet 87:925–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dar WD (2009) Winning the gamble against the monsoons. http://www.hindu.com/2009/07/05/stories/2009070555380900.htm
  9. Deu M, Ratnadass MA, Hamada MA, Noyer JL, Diabate M, Chantereau J (2005) Quantitative trait loci for head-bug resistance in Sorghum. Afr J Biotechnol 4:247–250Google Scholar
  10. Dhillon MK, Sharma HC, Naresh JS, Ram S, Pampapathy G (2006a) Influence of cytoplasmic male-sterility on different mechanisms of resistance in sorghum to shoot fly Atherigona soccata. J Econ Entomol 99(4):1452–1461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dhillon MK, Sharma HC, Smith CM (2008) Implications of cytoplasmic male-sterility systems for development and deployment of pest resistant hybrids in cereals. CAB Rev Prospect Agric Vet Sci Nutrit Nat Res 3(068):1–16Google Scholar
  12. Dhillon MK (2004) Effects of cytoplasmic male-sterility on expression of resistance to sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata (Rondani) (Muscidae, Diptera). PhD thesis. Department of Entomology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India, 382 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Dhillon MK, Sharma HC, Reddy BVS, Ram S, Naresh JS, Kai Z (2005) Relative susceptibility of different male-sterile cytoplasms in sorghum to shoot fly, Atherigona soccata. Euphytica 144:275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dhillon MK, Sharma HC, Ram S, Naresh JS (2006b) Influence of cytoplasmic male-sterility on expression of physico-chemical traits associated with resistance to sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata. SABRAO J Breed Genet 38:105–122Google Scholar
  15. Dhillon MK, Sharma HC, Pampapathy G, Reddy BVS (2006c) Cytoplasmic male-sterility affects expression of resistance to shoot bug (Peregrinus maidis), sugarcane aphid (Melanaphis sacchari) and spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus). Intl Sorghum Millets Newslett 47:66–68Google Scholar
  16. Dhillon MK, Sharma HC, Reddy BVS, Ram S, Naresh JS (2006d) Nature of gene action for resistance to sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata. Crop Sci 46:1377–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dhillon MK, Sharma HC, Folkertsma RT, Chandra S (2006e) Genetic divergence and molecular characterization of shoot fly-resistant and -susceptible parents and their hybrids. Euphytica 149:199–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eddleman BR, Chang CC, McCarl BA (1999) Economic benefits from grain sorghum variety improvement in the United States. In: Wiseman BR, Webster JA (eds) Economic, environmental, and social benefits of resistance in field Crops. Entomological Society of America, Lanham, MD, pp 17–44Google Scholar
  19. Folkertsma RT, Sajjanar GM, Reddy BVS, Sharma HC, Hash CT (2003) Genetic mapping of QTL associated with sorghum shoot fly (Atherigona soccata) resistance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). In: Final abstracts guide, plant & animal genome XI, 11–15 Jan 2003. San Diego, CA, USA, p 42. http://www.intl-pag.org/11/abstracts/P5d_P462_XI.html
  20. Gao Z, Xie X, Ling Y, Muthukrishnan S, Liang GH (2005) Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated sorghum transformation using a mannose selection system. Plant Biotechnol J 3:591–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Girijashankar V, Sharma HC, Sharma KK, Sivarama PL, Royer M, Secundo BS, Lakshmi N, Seetharama N (2005) Development of transgenic sorghum for insect resistance against spotted stem borer, (Chilo partellus). Transgen Res (in press)Google Scholar
  22. Harshavardhan D, Rani TS, Sharma HC, Arora R, Seetharama N (2002) Development and testing of Bt transgenic sorghum. In: International symposium on molecular approaches to improve crop productivity and quality, 22–24 May 2002, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  23. Harvey TL, Hackerott HL (1969) Recognition of a greenbug biotype injurious to sorghum. J Econ Entomol 62:776–779Google Scholar
  24. Heller W, Forkman G (1993) Biosynthesis of flavonoids. In: Harborne JB (ed) The flavonoids, advances in research since 1986. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Henzell RG, Brengman RL, Page FD (1980) Transference of sorghum midge resistance in to agronomically acceptable lines. In: Proc. 1st Australian Agronomy Conference. April 1980, Lawes, QueenslandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Henzell RG, Jordan DR (2009) Grain sorghum breeding. In: Carena MJ (ed) Cereals. Springer Science, New York, pp 183–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Howe A, Sato S, Dweikat I, Fromm M, Clemente T (2006) Rapid and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sorghum. Plant Cell Rep 25:784–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang Y (2004) Examining plant defense responses to greenbug attack in sorghum using DNA microarray technology. Intl Sorghum Millets Newslett 44:72–74Google Scholar
  29. Huang Y (2006) Evaluating sorghum germplasm for resistance to greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) biotype I. Intl Sorghum Millets Newslett 47:72–74Google Scholar
  30. Huang Y (2007) Phloem feeding regulates the plant defense pathways responding to both aphid infestation and pathogen infection. In: Zhi-hong Xu et al (eds) Biotechnology and sustainable agriculture 2006 and beyond. Springer, New York, pp 215–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huang Y (2008) Development of EST-SSR markers for sorghum and their transferability among cereal species. In: Proc. Intl. Plant & Animal Genome Conference. 12–26 Jan 2008, San Diego, CA, pp 148Google Scholar
  32. Huang Y (2011) Improvement of crop protection against insect pest using worldwide germplasm collection and genomics-based approaches. Plant Genet Resour Charact Utiliz 9:317–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hulbert SH, Richter TE, Axtell JD, Bennetzen JL (1990) Genetic mapping and characterization of sorghum and related crops by means of maize DNA probes. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 87:4251–4255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. ICRISAT (1992) Annual report 1991. International Crop research Institute for Semi-arid Tropics. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  35. ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics) (1989) International workshop on sorghum stem borers, 17–20 Nov 1987, ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnson JW, Rosenow DT, Teetes GL (1973) Resistance to the sorghum midge in converted exotic sorghum cultivars. Crop Sci 13:754–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Johnson JW (1977) Status of breeding for midge resistance. 10th biennial grain sorghum research and utilization conference, 2–4 Mar 1977, Grain Sorghum Producers Association, Wichita, KSGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim J-S, Klein PE, Klein RR, Price HJ, Mullet JE, Stelly DM (2005) Chromosome identification and nomenclature of Sorghum bicolor. Genetics 169:1169–1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kimber CT, Dahlberg JA, Kresovich S (2012) The gene pool of Sorghum bicolor and its improvement. In: Paterson AH (ed) Genomics of the saccharinae. Springer, New York, pp 23–41Google Scholar
  40. Klein PE, Klein RR, Cartinhour SW, Ulanch PE, Dong J, Obert JA, Morishige DT, Schlueter SD, Childs KL, Ale M, Mullet JE (2000) A high-throughput AFLP-based method for constructing integrated genetic and physical maps. Progress toward a sorghum genome map. Genome Res 10:789–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kosambo-Ayoo LM, Bader M, Loerz H, Becker D (2011) Transgenic sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) developed by transformation with chitinase and chitosanase genes from Trichoderma harzianum expresses tolerance to anthracnose. Afr J Biotechnol 10:3659–3670Google Scholar
  42. Kumar H (1993) Responses of Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) and Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) to hybrids of a resistant and a susceptible maize. J Econ Entomol 86:962–968Google Scholar
  43. Kumar H, Mihm JA (1996) Resistance in maize hybrids and inbreds to first-generation southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar) and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius. Crop Prot 15:311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kumari AP, Sharma HC, Reddy DDR (2000) Components of resistance to sorghum head bug, Calocoris angustatus. Crop Prot 19:385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Moran JL, Rooney WL (2003) Effect of cytoplasm on the agronomic performance of grain sorghum hybrids. Crop Sci 43:777–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mote UN (1984) Sorghum species resistant to shoot fly. Indian J Entomol 46:241–243Google Scholar
  47. Painter H (1951) Insect resistance in host plants. Macmillan, New York, p 520Google Scholar
  48. Park SJ, Huang Y, Ayoubi P (2006) Identification of expression profiles of sorghum genes in response to greenbug phloem-feeding using cDNA subtraction and microarray analysis. Planta 223:932–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pereira MG, Lee M, Bramel-Cox P, Woodman W, Doebley J, Whitkus J (1994) Construction of an RFLP map in sorghum and comparative mapping in maize. Genome 37:236–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Peterson GC, Reddy BVS, Youm O, Teetes GL, Lambright L (1997). Breeding for resistance to foliar- and stem-feeding insects of sorghum and pearl millet. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Genetic Improvement of Sorghum and Pearl Millet. INTSORMIL, Publ. 97-5, pp 281–302Google Scholar
  51. Ramu P, Kassahun B, Senthilvel S, Ashok KC, Jayashree B, Folkertsma RT, Ananda Reddy L, Kuruvinashetti MS, Haussmann BIG, Hash CT (2009) Exploiting rice–sorghum synteny for targeted development of EST-SSRs to enrich the sorghum genetic linkage map. Theor Appl Genet 119:1193–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Reddy BVS, Stenhouse JW (1994) Improving post-rainy season sorghum, a case study for landrace hybrid approach. An invited paper presented at All India co-ordinated sorghum improvement project (A ICSIP) workshop held at Pantnagar, UP, 18–20 AprilGoogle Scholar
  53. Rooney WL (2004) Sorghum improvement, integrating traditional and new technology to produce improved genotypes. Adv Agron 83:37–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ross WM, Kofoid KD (1979) Effect of non-milo cytoplasms on the agronomic performance of sorghum. Crop Sci 19:267–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sahrawat AK, Becker D, Lütticke S, Lörz H (2003) Genetic improvement of wheat via alien gene transfer, an assessment. Plant Sci 165:1147–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Satish K, Srinivas G, Madhusudhana R, Padmaja PG, Nagaraja Reddy R, Murali Mohan S, Seetharama N (2009) Identification of quantitative trait loci for resistance to shoot fly in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Theor Appl Genet 119:1425–1439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Seetharama N, Mythili PK, Rani TS, Harshavardhan D, Ranjani A, Sharma HC (2001) Tissue culture and alien gene transfer in sorghum. In: Singh RP, Jaiwal PK (eds) Improvement of food crops. Sci-Tech Publishing Company, Houstan, TX, pp 235–266Google Scholar
  58. Schertz KF (1994) Male-sterility in sorghum: its characteristics and importance. In: Witcombe JR, Duncan RR (eds) Use of molecular markers in sorghum and pearl millet breeding for developing countries. In: Proceedings of the international conference on genetic improvement of an overseas development administration (ODA) plant sciences research conference, 29 March–1 April 1993, Norwich, UK, ODA, UK, pp 35–37Google Scholar
  59. Sharma HC (1993) Host plant resistance to insects in sorghum and its role in integrated pest management. Crop Prot 12:11–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sharma HC (2001) Cytoplasmic male-sterility and source of pollen influence the expression of resistance to sorghum midge, Stenodiplosis sorghicola. Euphytica 122:391–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sharma HC, Abraham CV, Vidyasagar P, Stenhouse JW (1996) Gene action for resistance in sorghum to midge, Contarinia sorghicola. Crop Sci 36:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sharma HC, Dhillon MK, Naresh JS, Ram S, Pampapathy G, Reddy BVS (2004) Influence of cytoplasmic male-sterility on the expression of resistance to insects in sorghum. In: Fisher T, Turner N, Angus J, McIntyre L, Robertson M, Borrell A, Llyod D. (eds) Fourth international crop science congress, 25 September–October 1, 2004. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 2007Google Scholar
  63. Sharma HC, Dhillon MK, Reddy BVS (2006) Expression of resistance to sorghum shoot fly in F1 hybrids involving shoot fly resistant and susceptible cytoplasmic male-sterile and restorer lines of sorghum. Plant Breed 125:473–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sharma HC, Franzmann BA (2001) Host plant preference and oviposition responses of the sorghum midge, Stenodiplosis sorghicola (Coquillett) (Dipt., Cecidomyiidae) towards wild relatives of sorghum. J Appl Entomol 125:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sharma HC, Nwanze KF (1997) Mechanisms of resistance to insects and their usefulness in sorghum improvement. Information bulletin no. 55. International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, 51 ppGoogle Scholar
  66. Sharma HC, Reddy BVS, Dhillon MK, Venkateswaran K, Singh BU, Pampapathy G, Folkertsma RT, Hash CT, Sharma KK (2005) Host plant resistance to insects in sorghum, present status and need for future research. Intl Sorghum Millets Newslett 46:36–43Google Scholar
  67. Sharma HC, Taneja SL, Kameswara Rao N, Prasada Rao KE (2003) Evaluation of sorghum germplasm for resistance to insect pests. Information bulletin no. 63. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (CRISAT). 184 ppGoogle Scholar
  68. Sharma HC, Taneja SL, Leuschner K, Nwanze KF (1992) Techniques to screen sorghums for resistance to insects. Information bulletin no. 32. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, 48 ppGoogle Scholar
  69. Sharma HC, Vidyasagar P, Leuschner K (1988a) Field screening for resistance to sorghum midge (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). J Econ Entomol 81:327–334Google Scholar
  70. Sharma HC, Vidyasagar P, Leuschner K (1988b) No-choice cage technique to screen for resistance to sorghum midge (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). J Econ Entomol 81:415–422Google Scholar
  71. Sharma HC, Vidyasagar P, Abraham CV, Nwanze KF (1994) Effect of cytoplasmic male-sterility in sorghum on host plant interaction with sorghum midge, Contarinia sorghicola. Euphytica 74:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tao YZ, Hardy A, Drenth J, Henzell RG, Franzmann BA, Jordan DR, Butler DG, McIntyre CL (2003) Identifications of two different mechanisms for sorghum midge resistance through QTL mapping. Theor Appl Genet 107:116–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Tatum LA (1971) The southern corn leaf blight epidemic. Science 171:1113–1116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Teetes GL, Pendleton BB (2000) Insect pests of sorghum. In: Smith CW, Frederiksen RA (eds) Sorghum, origin, history, technology, and production. Wiley, New York, pp 443–495Google Scholar
  75. Tejinder K, Howe A, Sato S, Dweikat I, Clemente T (2012) Sorghum transformation: overview and utility. In: Paterson AH (ed) Genomics of the saccharinae. Springer, New York, pp 205–221Google Scholar
  76. Tryon H (1895) The insect enemies of cereals belonging to the genus Cecidomyia. Trans Nat Hist Soc Queensland 1:80–83Google Scholar
  77. Uknes S, Dincher S, Friedrich L, Negrotto D, Williams S, Thompson-Taylor H, Potter S, Ward E, Ryals J (1993) Regulation of pathogenesis-related Protein-1a gene expression in tobacco. Plant Cell 5:159–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. van den Berg J, van Rensburg GDJ, van der Westhiizen MC (1994) Host-plant resistance and chemical control of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Busseola fusca (Fuller) in an integrated pest management system on grain sorghum. Crop Prot 13:308–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Venkateswaran K (2003) Diversity analysis and identification of sources of resistance to downy mildew, shoot fly and stem borer in wild sorghums. Ph.D. thesis. Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, Department of Genetics, Osmania UniversityGoogle Scholar
  80. Venkateswaran K, Sharma HC, Manohar Rao D, Varaprasad KS, Bramel PJ (2009) Wild relatives of sorghum as sources of resistance to sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata. Plant Breed 128:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ward ER, Uknes SJ, Williams SC, Dincher SS, Wiederhold DL, Aleander DC, Ahl-Goy P, Metraux JP, Ryals JA (1991) Coordinate gene activity in response to agents that induce systemic acquired resistance. Plant Cell 3:1085–1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Wu J, Baldwin IT (2010) New insights into plant responses to the attack from insect herbivores. Ann Rev Genet 44:1–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wu Y, Huang Y (2007) An SSR genetic map of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and its comparison to a published genetic map. Genome 50:84–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wu Y, Huang Y (2008) Molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to the greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) in Sorghum bicolor (Moench). Theor Appl Genet 117:117–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wu Y, Huang Y, Porter DR, Tauer CG, Hollaway L (2007) Identification of a major QTL conditioning resistance to greenbug biotype E in Sorghum PI 550610 using SSR markers. J Econ Entomol 100:1672–1678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Xu D, McElroy D, Thoraburg RW, Wu R (1993) Systemic induction of a potato pin 2 promoter by wounding methyl jasmonate and abscisic acid in transgenic rice plants. Plant Mol Biol 22:573–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yang W, de Oliveira AC, Godwin I, Schertz K, Bennetzen JL (1996) Comparison of DNA marker technologies in characterizing plant genome diversity, variability in Chinese sorghums. Crop Sci 36:1669–1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Young WR, Teetes GL (1977) Sorghum entomology. Ann Rev Entomol 22:193–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhuang X, Köllner TG, Zhao N, Li G, Jiang Y, Zhu L, Ma J, Degenhardt J, Chen F (2011) Dynamic evolution of herbivore-induced sesquiterpene biosynthesis in sorghum and related grass crops. Plant J 69:70–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhao ZY, Cai T, Tagliani L, Miller M, Wang N, Pang H, Rudert M, Schroeder S, Hondred D, Seltzer J, Pierce D (2000) Agrobacterium-mediated sorghum transformation. Plant Mol Biol 44:789–798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhu-Salzman K, Salzman RA, Ahn J-E, Koiwa H (2004) Transcriptional regulation of sorghum defense determinants against a phloem-feeding aphid. Plant Physiol 134:420–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yinghua Huang
    • 1
  • Hari C. Sharma
    • 2
  • Mukesh K. Dhillon
    • 3
  1. 1.USDA-ARS Plant Science Research LaboratoryStillwaterUSA
  2. 2.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)PatancheruIndia
  3. 3.Division of EntomologyIndian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations