Advertisement

Fulminant Hepatic Failure

  • Paul Ellis Marik
Chapter

Abstract

Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) also known as acute liver failure is defined as the development of impaired hepatic synthetic function with coagulopathy and the development of hepatic encephalopathy in the absence of underlying liver disease within a time period of 2–3 months. This condition is uncommon but not rare, affecting approximately 2,000 cases annually in the United States with a mortality ranging 50–90% despite intensive care therapy.1

Keywords

International Normalize Ratio Hepatic Encephalopathy Cerebral Edema Intracranial Hypertension Acute Liver Failure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Hoofnagle JH, Carithers RL Jr, Shapiro C, et al. Fulminant hepatic failure: summary of a workshop. Hepatology. 1995;21:240–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ostapowicz G, Fontana RJ, Schiodt FV, et al. Results of a prospective study of acute liver failure at 17 tertiary care centers in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:947–954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clemmesen JO, Larsen FS, Kondrup J, et al. Cerebral herniation in patients with acute liver failure is correlated with arterial ammonia concentration. Hepatology. 1999;29:648–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stravitz RT, Kramer AH, Davern T, et al. Intensive care of patients with acute liver failure: recommendations of the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:2498–2508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Strauss GI, Moller K, Holm S, et al. Transcranial Doppler sonography and internal jugular bulb saturation during hyperventilation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Liver Transpl. 2001;7:352–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marik PE. Propofol: therapeutic indications and side effects. Curr Pharm Design. 2004;10:3639–3649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stravitz RT, Larsen FS. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute liver failure. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:S258–S264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chatauret N, Rose C, Butterworth RF. Mild hypothermia in the prevention of brain edema in acute liver failure: mechanisms and clinical prospects. Metab Brain Dis. 2002;17:445–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee WM, Rossaro L, Fontana RJ. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure [abstract]. Hepatology. 2007;46:268A.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    O'Grady JG, Alexander GJ, Hayllar KM, et al. Early indicators of prognosis in fulminant hepatic failure. Gastroenterology. 1989;97:439–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineEastern Virginia Medical SchoolNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations