• Paul Ellis Marik


• Normal body temperature is fairly constant and is usually 37°C (98.6°F)1:

– Normal oral temperature ranges from 35.6°C (96.1°F) to 38.2°C (100.8°F) with marked diurnal variations.2

• Fever is a bad thing and suppressing a fever will eliminate its bad effects.


Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Malignant Hyperthermia Acalculous Cholecystitis Postoperative Fever Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Barone J. Fever: fact and fiction. J Trauma. 2009;67:406–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sund-Levander M, Forsberg C, Wahren LK. Normal oral, rectal, tympanic and axillary body temperature in adult men and women: a systematic literature review. Scand J Caring Sci. 2002;16:122–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Circiumaru B, Baldock G, Cohen J, et al. A prospective study of fever in the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med. 1999;25:668–673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Laupland KB, Shahpori R, Kirkpatrick AW, et al. Occurrence and outcome of fever in critically ill adults. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:1531–1535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    O’Grady NP, Barie PS, Bartlett JG, et al. Guidelines for evaluation of new fever in critically ill adult patients: 2008 update from the American College of Critical Care Medicine and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:1330–1349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sund-Levander M, Forsberg C, Wahren LK. Normal oral, rectal, tympanic and axillary body temperature in adult men and women: a systematic literature review. Scand J Care Sci. 2002;16:122–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Erickson RS, Kirklin SK. Comparison of ear-based, bladder, oral, and axillary methods for core temperature measurement. Crit Care Med. 1993;21:1528–1534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saper CB, Breder CD. The neurologic basis of fever. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1880–1886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kluger MJ, Kozak W, Leon LR, et al. The use of knockout mice to understand the role of cytokines in fever. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1998;25:141–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kluger MJ, Ringler DH, Anver MR. Fever and survival. Science. 1975;188:166–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kluger MJ, Kozak W, Conn CA, et al. The adaptive value of fever. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1996;10:1–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schulman CI, Namias N, Doherty J, et al. The effect of antipyretic therapy upon outcomes in critically ill patients: a randomized, prospective study. Surg Infect. 2005;6:369–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Doran TF, De AC, Baumgardner RA, et al. Acetaminophen: more harm than good for chickenpox? J Pediatr. 1989;114:1045–1048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Weinstein MP, Iannini PB, Stratton CW, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. A review of 28 cases with emphasis on improved survival and factors influencing prognosis. Am J Med. 1978;64:592–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lenhardt R, Negishi C, Sessler DI, et al. The effects of physical treatment on induced fever in humans. Am J Med. 1999;106:550–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Hypothermia and cytokines in septic shock. Norasept II Study Investigators. North American study of the safety and efficacy of murine monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor for the treatment of septic shock. Intensive Care Med. 2000;26:716–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vincent JL, Bihari DJ, Suter PM, et al. The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe. Results of the European Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) Study. EPIC International Advisory Committee. JAMA. 1995;274:639–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Richards MJ, Edwards JR, Culver DH, et al. Nosocomial infections in medical intensive care units in the United States. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:887–892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Laupland KB, Bagshaw SM, Gregson DB, et al. Intensive care unit-acquired urinary tract infections in a regional critical care system. Crit Care. 2005;9:R60–R65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Leone M, Albanese J, Garnier F, et al. Risk factors of nosocomial catheter-associated urinary tract infection in a polyvalent intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:1077–1080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Platt R, Polk BF, Murdock B, et al. Mortality associated with nosocomial urinary tract infection. N Engl J Med. 1982;307:637–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stark RP, Maki DG. Bacteriuria in the catheterized patient. What quantitative level of bacteriuria is relevant? N Engl J Med. 1984;311:560–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krieger JN, Kaiser DL, Wenzel RP. Urinary tract etiology of bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients. J Infect Dis. 1983;148:57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Garibaldi RA, Mooney BR, Epstein BJ, et al. An evaluation of daily bacteriologic monitoring to identify preventable episodes of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Infect Control. 1982;3:466–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    George DL, Falk PS, Umberto MG, et al. Nosocomial sinusitis in patients in the medical intensive care unit: a prospective epidemiological study. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27:463–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Holzapfel L, Chevret S, Madinier G, et al. Influence of long-term oro- or nasotracheal intubation on nosocomial maxillary sinusitis and pneumonia: results of a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 1993;21:1132–1138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wanahita A, Goldsmith EA, Marino BJ, et al. Clostridium difficile infection in patients with unexplained leukocytosis. Am J Med. 2003;115:543–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McDonald LC, Killgore GE, Thompson A, et al. An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2433–2441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kuipers EJ, Surawicz CM. Clostridium difficile infection. Lancet. 2008;371:1486–1488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Marik PE. Fever in the ICU. Chest. 2000;117:855–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Johnson DH, Cunha BA. Drug fever. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1996;10:85–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kalliafas S, Ziegler DW, Flancbaum L, et al. Acute acalculous cholecystitis: incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, and outcome. Am Surg. 1998;64:471–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mariat G, Mahul P, Prevt N, et al. Contribution of ultrasonography and cholescintigraphy to the diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis in intensive care unit patients. Intensive Care Med. 2000;26:1658–1663.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Frank SM, Kluger MJ, Kunkel SL. Elevated thermostatic setpoint in postoperative patients. Anesthesiology. 2000;93:1426–1431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dionigi R, Dionigi G, Rovera F, et al. Postoperative fever. Surg Infect. 2006;7(Suppl 2):S17–S20.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lenhardt R, Negishi C, Sessler DI, et al. Perioperative fever. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Suppl. 1997;111:325–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hiyama DT, Zinner MJ. Surgical complications. In: Schwartz SI, Shires GT, Sencer FC, Cowles Husser W, eds. Principles of Surgery. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994:455–487.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Engoren M. Lack of association between atelectasis and fever. Chest. 1995;107:81–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shields RT. Pathogenesis of postoperative pulmonary atelectasis an experimental study. Arch Surg. 1949;48:489–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Snyder EL. The role of cytokines and adhesive molecules in febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions. Immunol Invest. 1995;24:333–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hendrickson JE, Hillyer CD. Noninfectious serious hazards of transfusion. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:759–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stein PD, Afzal A, Henry JW, et al. Fever in acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 2000;117:39–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineEastern Virginia Medical SchoolNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations