Feedback Control Systems Using Environmentally and Enzymatically Sensitive Hydrogels

  • Irma Y. Sanchez
  • Nicholas A. Peppas


A large number of hydrogels can be classified as smart materials that offer a natural integration of sensing, actuating, and regulating functions applicable to feedback control systems. This multifunctionality added to biocompatibility and enzyme-based selectivity characteristics enables self-regulation or implicit control in hydrogels-based devices to maintain physiological variables at a desired level or range by appropriate drug release. Therefore, hydrogels can enhance the performance of individual actuator and sensing units. Applications of hydrogels in explicit and implicit controller systems are presented based on recent experimental and theoretical research studies. Integration of cascade and feedforward control types of functionalities in hydrogels systems is suggested from their capability to respond to more than one stimulus. Enzymatic glucose sensing and insulin delivery are often used as references for the discussion of hydrogels in the development of sensor, actuator, and control technology due to the relevance of the diabetes disease.


Drug Release Lower Critical Solution Temperature Gluconic Acid Biot Number Insulin Delivery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechatronics and AutomationTecnologico de MonterreyMonterreyMexico
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringThe University of Texas AustinAustinUSA

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