Pelvic Varices Embolization

  • Anthony C. Venbrux
  • Giriraj K. Sharma
  • Emily Timmreck Jackson
  • Amy P. Harper
  • Lena Hover


Pelvic venous incompetence (PVI) or pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is a disease entity that is characterized by a pain syndrome known as chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and is caused by varices. More broadly, CPP in women is defined as noncyclic pain originating in the lower abdomen or pelvis for more than 6 months in duration [1]. A potentially debilitating condition, CPP is estimated to affect as many as 39.1% of women at some point in their lives [2]. While the etiology of CPP is variable, pelvic venous incompetence (PVI) or pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) has been recognized as a cause of CPP since 1949 [3]. PVI or PCS is defined as venous incompetence in ovarian, internal iliac, or parauterine veins, resulting in increased venous filling (i.e., congestion or engorgement) and subsequent development of ovarian and internal iliac (i.e., pelvic) varicosities. The term PVI is preferred over the older name, PCS, because it more accurately reflects the pathophysiology associated with the condition.


Chronic Pelvic Pain Left Renal Vein Ovarian Vein Internal Iliac Vein Boston Scientific Corp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors wish to express their thanks to Ms. Shundra Dinkins for her expertise in the preparation of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony C. Venbrux
    • 1
  • Giriraj K. Sharma
    • 3
  • Emily Timmreck Jackson
    • 1
  • Amy P. Harper
    • 2
  • Lena Hover
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional RadiologyThe George Washington University Medical CenterWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Radiology, Division of Interventional RadiologyThe George Washington University Medical CenterWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyThe George Washington University Medical CenterWashingtonUSA

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