Interstitial Lung Disease in Infants and Children: New Classification System with Emphasis on Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Correlation

  • Edward Y. Lee
  • Robert H. Cleveland
  • Claire Langston


Interstitial lung diseases in infants and children comprise a rare heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders, with clinical syndromes characterized by dyspnea, tachypnea, crackles, and hypoxemia. They arise from a wide spectrum of developmental, genetic, inflammatory, infectious, and reactive disorders. In the past, there has been a paucity of information and limited understanding regarding their pathogenesis, natural history, imaging findings, and histopathologic features, which often resulted in enormous diagnostic challenges and confusion. In recent years, there has been a substantial improvement in the understanding of interstitial lung disease in the pediatric patient, due to the development of a structured classification system based on etiology of the lung disease, established pathologic criteria for consistent diagnosis, and improvement of thoracoscopic techniques for lung biopsy. Imaging plays an important role in evaluating interstitial lung diseases in infants and children by confirming and characterizing the disorder, generating differential diagnoses, and providing localization for lung biopsy for pathological diagnosis. In this chapter, the authors present epidemiology, challenges and uncertainties of diagnosis, and amplify a recently developed classification system for interstitial lung disease in infants and children with clinical, imaging, and pathological correlation.


Interstitial Lung Disease Chronic Granulomatous Disease Bronchiolitis Obliterans Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis Common Variable Immune Deficiency 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward Y. Lee
    • 1
  • Robert H. Cleveland
    • 2
    • 3
  • Claire Langston
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Thoracic Imaging, Department of Radiology and Medicine, Pulmonary DivisionChildren’s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Division of Respiratory DiseasesChildren’s Hospital BostonBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of PathologyTexas Children’s Hospital, Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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