This chapter reviews the common spectrum of disorders of the neonatal chest. Emphasis is on radiographic changes that have been produced by the introduction of new therapeutic maneuvers, particularly the use of artificial surfactant in treating hyaline membrane disease (HMD) and the survival of profoundly premature newborns (less than 650 g). A discussion of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), neonatal pneumonia, transient tachypnea of the newborn, congenital lymphangiectasia, and congenital heart disease is also included. The effect on the neonatal chest radiograph of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and high-frequency ventilation are also mentioned. Some have paid particular attention to lung volume as a differentiating criterion of these lesions. Generally, HMD and neonatal pneumonia have been associated with low lung volumes, while congenital lymphangiectasia, MAS and transient tachypnea have been associated with normal or increased lung volume. However, many initial images are obtained only after the baby has been intubated and the lungs artificially inflated. There is also a considerable occurrence of concomitant diseases, i.e., HMD with pneumonia or transient tachypnea. Hence, there is no discussion of differentiating diseases based on lung volume.
KeywordsContinuous Positive Airway Pressure Superior Vena Cava Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Peripherally Insert Central Catheter Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection
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