¹H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Brain During Adolescence: Normal Brain Development and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

  • Alena Horská
  • E. Mark Mahone


Adolescence, a transitional period between childhood and adulthood (12–18 years of age), is characterized by maturation of cognitive and behavioral abilities. Compared to brain development in perinatal and early childhood, neurobiological changes occurring during later childhood and adolescence are less dramatic but have critical importance for development of normal brain functions. The combinations of genetic vulnerability, endocrine changes during puberty, and environmental factors render adolescents at risk for developing psychiatric disorders. In the developed world, mental and addictive disorders can be considered the primary chronic diseases of childhood and adolescence. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are associated with childhood. The onset of mood and anxiety disorders generally occurs in adolescence, although the diagnoses may be delayed until adulthood. Many psychiatric disorders that emerge in childhood and adolescence can be understood as dysfunctions within established brain circuits. Therefore, an understanding of normal development of the brain and its circuitry is important for both identifying the causes of psychiatric disorders and for development of effective treatments.


Autism Spectrum Disorder Bipolar Disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Tourette Syndrome Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological ScienceJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeuropsychologyKennedy Krieger InstituteBaltimoreUSA

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