Gender Differences in Coronary Risk Factors and Risk Interventions

  • Niels Engberding
  • Nanette K. Wenger


Although women experience initial cardiovascular events approximately 10 years later than men, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is also the leading cause of death in women worldwide [1,2]. As menopause escalates CVD risk, the lifetime risk for women to develop and die from CVD is almost equal to that of men [1,3]. Although it remains elusive which mechanisms protect premenopausal women from CVD, it has become apparent that the premenopausal cardiovascular risk profile impacts subclinical atherosclerosis after menopause [4]. With progressive aging of the US population, more women are surviving to older age; they will incur a high incidence of CVD unless preventive strategies are instituted early and across their life span [5]. This is also reflected in the fact that, since 1984, more US women than men died annually of CVD [1] and underscores the need to commence preventive interventions early in a woman’s life. Regardless of age, the majority of women who experience CVD has at least one traditional cardiovascular risk factor [6]. Nevertheless, the reduction in coronary risk factors has been less prominent among women [7], and the decrease in cardiovascular and coronary mortality has been less pronounced in women than in men [1] during the past few decades. A 1998 Centers for Disease Control National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey showed that, in office practice, fewer women than men were counseled about exercise, nutrition, and weight reduction [8]. Recently reported studies show substantial benefit of selected interventions designed to reduce coronary risk in women.


Premenopausal Woman Coronary Risk Subclinical Atherosclerosis Coronary Risk Factor Gonadal Hormone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niels Engberding
    • 1
  • Nanette K. Wenger
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of CardiologyEmory University School of Medicine, Grady Memorial HospitalAtlantaUSA

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