FAP with Sexual Minorities



The landscape of psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients has evolved so dramatically in recent history it would seem unrecognizable to those who defined the field only five decades ago. The first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, American Psychiatric Association, 1952) described “homosexuality” as a sociopathic personality disturbance requiring long-term treatment. Almost three decades later, catalyzed partly by the gay liberation movement as well as research on the prevalence and psychological correlates of same-sex attraction and sexual behavior (Hooker, 1957; Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948; Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard, 1953 ), the DSM-III shifted direction, re-categorizing “homosexuality” as a “sexual orientation disturbance” (American Psychiatric Association, 1980). It was not until 1987 that the profession removed all remnants of its earlier characterizations of “the homosexual” as disturbed, pathological, arrested, regressed, or from the DSM (DSM-III-R, American Psychiatric Association, 1987).


Sexual Orientation Sexual Minority Identity Development Implicit Attitude Implicit Bias 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1952). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-I). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third revised edition (DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychological Association. (2000). Guidelines for psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. American Psychologist, 55(12), 1409–1421.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57(12), 1060–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bieschke, K. J., McClanahan, M., Tozer, E., Grzegorek, J. L., & Park, J. (2000). Programmatic research on the treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients: The past, the present, and the course of the future. In R. M. Perez, K. A. DeBord, & K. J. Bieschke (Eds.), Handbook of counseling and psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients (pp. 309–335). Washington, DC: APA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blair, I. V. (2002). The malleability of automatic stereotypes and prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 242–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Caitlin, R., & Futterman, D. (1997). Lesbian and gay youth: Care and counseling. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus.Google Scholar
  10. Cass, V. (1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cochran, S. D., Sullivan, J. G., & Mays, V. M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental services use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(1), 53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dasgupta, N. (2004). Implicit ingroup favoritism, outgroup favoritism, and their behavioral manifestations. Social Justice Research, 17, 143–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dohrenwend, B. P. (2000). The role of adversity and stress in psychopathology: Some evidence and its implications for theory and research. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41, 1–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., & Beach, K. R. (2001). Implicit and explicit attitudes: Examination of the relationship between measures of intergroup bias. In R. Brown & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 175–197). Oxford, England: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  15. Dworkin, S. H. (2001). Treating the bisexual client. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(5), 671–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fassinger, R. E., & Miller, B. A. (1996). Validation of an inclusive model of sexual minority identity formation on a sample of gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 32(2), 53–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fazio, R. H., Jackson, J. R., Dunton, B. C., & Williams, C. J. (1995). Variability in automatic activation as an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes: A bona fide pipeline? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1013–1027.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, J. L., & Beautrais, A. L. (1999). Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people? Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 876–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  20. Garnets, L., Hancock, K., Cochran, S., Goodchilds, J., & Peplau, L. (1991). Issues in psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men: A survey of psychologists. American Psychologist, 46, 964–972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gelso, C. J., Fassinger, R., Gomez, M. J., & Latts, M. G. (1995). Countertransference reactions to lesbian clients: The role of homophobia, counselor gender, and countertransference management. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 356–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gilman, S. E., Cochran, S. D., Mays, V. M., Hughes, M., Ostrow, D., & Kesler, R. C. (2001). Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 933–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102(1), 4–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hayes, J. A., & Gelso, C. J. (1993). Male counselors’ discomfort with gay and HIV-infected clients. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40, 86–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Herrell, R., Goldberg, J., True, W. R., Ramakrishnam, V., Lyons, M., Eisen, S., & Tsuang, M. T. (1999). Sexual orientation and suicidality: A co-twin control study in adult men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 867–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hooker, E. (1957). The adjustment of the male overt homosexual. Journal of Projective Techniques, 21, 18–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jones, M. A., & Gabriel, M. A. (1999). Utilization of psychotherapy by lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: Findings from a nationwide survey. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69, 209–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.Google Scholar
  29. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., Martin, C. E., & Gebhard, P. H. (1953). Sexual behavior in the human female. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.Google Scholar
  30. Kohlenberg, R. J., & Tsai, M. (1991). Functional analytic psychotherapy: Creating intense and curative therapeutic relationships. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Myers, J. E. (2000, October 1). Revisiting Cass’ theory of sexual identity formation: A study of Lesbian development. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22(4), 318–333.Google Scholar
  33. Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2001). Implicit attitude formation through classical conditioning. Psychological Science, 12(5), 413–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5), 751–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Phillips, J. C., & Fischer, A. R. (1998). Graduate students’ training experiences with gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues. The Counseling Psychologist, 26, 712–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rudman, L. A., Ashmore, R. D., & Gary, M. L. (2001). “Unlearning” automatic biases: The malleability of implicit prejudice and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5), 856–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Safren, S. A., & Heimberg, R. G. (1999). Depression, hopelessness, suicidality, and related factors in sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(6), 859–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Safren, S. A., & Pantalone, D. W. (2006). Social anxiety and barriers to resilience among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents. In A. M. Omoto & H. S. Kurtzman (Eds.), Sexual orientation and mental health: Examining identity and development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual people (pp. 55–71). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Siever, M. D. (1994). Sexual orientation and gender as factors in sociocultural acquired vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 252–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Troiden, R. R. (1979). Being homosexual: A model of gay identity acquisition. Psychiatry, 42, 362–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Tsai, M., Kohlenberg, R. J., Kanter, J. W., Kohlenberg, B., Follette, W. C., & Callaghan, G. M. (2008). A guide to functional analytic psychotherapy: Awareness, courage, love and behaviorism. New York: Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations