FAP and Behavioral Activation

  • Andrew M. Busch
  • Rachel C. Manos
  • Laura C. Rusch
  • William M. Bowe
  • Jonathan W. Kanter


Depression is at the same time extremely common and extremely serious. In fact, depression is one of the most frequent presenting problems in outpatient psychotherapy, was listed as the single most burdensome disease in the world by the World Health Organization (Murray & Lopez, 1996 ), creates significant economic costs at the societal level, and results in major functional impairment and distress for depressed persons and those close to them. Suicide, of course, is the ultimate cost. How may FAP be used specifically with clients who present with depression? On the one hand, Tsai et al. (2008) present a working FAP model for the clinician to use with clients exhibiting diverse diagnoses, including depression, and it is our hope and belief that such a model will be useful.


Personality Disorder Positive Reinforcement Negative Life Event Target Behavior Avoidant Coping 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Billings, A., & Moos, R. (1984). Treatment experiences of adults with unipolar depression: The influence of patient and life context factors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 119–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blalock, J., & Joiner, T. (2000). Interaction of cognitive avoidance coping and stress in predicting depression/anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24, 47–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Catania, A. (1998). The taxonomy of verbal behavior. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  5. Coffman, S., Martell, C. R., Dimidjian, S., Gallop, R., & Hollon, S. D. (2007). Extreme non-response in cognitive therapy: Can behavioral activation succeed where cognitive therapy fails?. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 531–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Critchfield, K. L., & Benjamin, L. S. (2006). Principles for psychosocial treatment of personality disorder: Summary of the APA Division 12 Task Force/NASPR review. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 661–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cuijpers, P., van Straten, A., & Warmerdam, L. (2007). Behavioral activation treatments of depression: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 318–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dimidjian, S., Hollon, S. D., Dobson, K. S., Schmaling, K. B., Kohlenberg, R. J., Addis, M. E., et al. (2006). Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the acute treatment of adults with major depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 658–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferster, C. B. (1967). Arbitrary and natural reinforcement. The Psychological Record, 17, 341–347.Google Scholar
  10. Ferster, C. B. (1973). A functional analysis of depression. American Psychologist, 28, 857–870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gortner, E., Gollan, J. K., Dobson, K. S., & Jacobson, N. S. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression: Relapse prevention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 377–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. A. (2002). Interpersonal dysfunction in depressed women: Impairments independent of depressive symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 72, 145–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Holahan, C. J., & Moos, R. H. (1986). Personality, coping, and family resources in stress resistance: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 389–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hopko, D. R., Lejuez, C. W., LePage, J. P., Hopko, S. D., & McNeil, D. W. (2003). A brief behavioral activation treatment for depression. Behavior Modification, 27, 458–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jacobson, N. S., Dobson, K. S., Truax, P. A., Addis, M. E., Koerner, K., Gollan, J. K., et al. (1996). A component analysis of cognitive behavioral treatment for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 295–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kanter, J. W., Busch, A. M., & Rusch, L. C. (2009). Behavioral activation: Distinctive features. London: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
  17. Kanter, J. W., Callaghan, G. M., Landes, S. J., Busch, A. M., & Brown, K. R. (2004). Behavior analytic conceptualization and treatment of depression: Traditional models and recent advances. The Behavior Analyst Today, 5, 255–274.Google Scholar
  18. Kanter, J. W., Manos, R. C., Busch, A. M., & Rusch, L. C. (2008). Making behavioral activation more behavioral. Behavior Modification, 32, 780–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kanter, J. W., & Mulick, P. (2007, November). Basic science foundations and new applications of behavioral activation. Symposium accepted for the annual meeting of the Association of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  20. Kessler, R. C. (1997). The effects of stressful life events on depression. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 191–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kohlenberg, R. J., & Tsai, M. (1991). Functional analytic psychotherapy: Creating intense and curative therapeutic relationships. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kuyken, W., & Brewin, C. R. (1994). Stress and coping in depressed women. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18, 403–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lejuez, C. W., Hopko, D. R., & Hopko, S. D. (2002). The brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD): A comprehensive patient guide. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing.Google Scholar
  24. Lejuez, C. W., Hopko, D. R., LePage, J. P., Hopko, S. D., & McNeil, D. W. (2001). A brief behavioral activation treatment for depression. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 8, 164–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lewinsohn, P. M. (1974). A behavioral approach to depression. In R. J. Friedman & M. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 157–178). Washington, DC: Winston-Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Londahl, E. A., Tverskoy, A., & D’Zurilla, T. J. (2005). The relations of internalizing symptoms to conflict and interpersonal problem solving in close relationships. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 445–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1993). Self-perpetuating properties of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 339–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Martell, C. R., Addis, M. E., & Jacobson, N. S. (2001). Depression in context: Strategies for guided action. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  29. Mazure, C. M. (1998). Life stressors as risk factors in depression. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5, 291–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mirowsky, J., & Ross, C. E. (1989). Social causes of psychological distress. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  31. Monroe, S. M., & Depue, R. A. (1991). Life stress and depression. In J. Becker & A. Kleinman (Eds.), Psychosocial aspects of depression (pp. 1101–1130). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  32. Murray, C. J. L., & Lopez, A. D. (Eds.). (1996). The global burden of disease: A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020 (Vol. 1). Cambridge, MA: Harvard School of Public Health on behalf of World Health Organization and World Bank.Google Scholar
  33. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Parker, L. E., & Larson, J. (1994). Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 92–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ottenbreit, N. D., & Dobson, K. S. (2004). Avoidance and depression: The construction of the Cognitive-Behavioral Avoidance Scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 293–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Paykel, E. S. (1982). Psychopharmacology of suicide. Journal of Affective Disorders, 4, 271–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pearlin, L. I. (1989). The sociological study of stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 337–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tsai, M., Kohlenberg, R. J., Kanter, J. W., Kohlenberg, B., Follette, W. C., & Callaghan, G. M. (2008). A Guide to functional analytic psychotherapy: Awareness, courage, love and behaviorism. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Zeiss, A. M., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Munoz, R. F. (1979). Nonspecfic improvement effects in depression using interpersonal skills training, pleasant activity schedules, or cognitive training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 427–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zlotnick, C., Kohn, R., Keitner, G., & Della Grotta, S. A. (2000). The relationship between quality of interpersonal relationship and major depressive disorder: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey. Journal of Affective Disorders, 59, 205–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew M. Busch
    • 1
  • Rachel C. Manos
    • 2
  • Laura C. Rusch
    • 2
  • William M. Bowe
    • 2
  • Jonathan W. Kanter
    • 3
  1. 1.The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and The Miriam Hospital, Centers for Behavioral and Preventive MedicineProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.University of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations