Understanding Gene, Environment, and Gene × Environment Interaction Effects: The Example of Childhood Externalizing Disorders

  • Hilah Evrony
  • Jennifer Ulbricht
  • Jenae M. Neiderhiser
Part of the Issues in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ICCP)


In the past, models of children’s social development focused almost exclusively on causal mechanisms believed to be primarily environmental. Oftentimes, parenting styles were implicated as the primary causal factors in the development of children’s social and emotional adjustment (e.g., Bates, Bayles, Bennett, Ridge, & Brown, 1991; Hetherington & Martin, 1979; Patterson, 1982). Peer influence on child behavior has also been researched in depth (Berkowitz & Lundy, 1957; Pravder & Israel, 1983), as were adverse environmental conditions such as poverty (Schweinhart & Weikart, 1988). While these causal pathways each have merit, theories of the origins of children’s adjustment and maladjustment evolved dramatically during the 1990s to consider increasingly complex transactional systems in which psychological, sociological, and genetic factors are interrelated in their influence on child adjustment (Bates et al., 1991; Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994).


Oppositional Defiant Disorder Genetic Influence Marital Conflict Adoption Study Shared Environmental Influence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hilah Evrony
    • 1
  • Jennifer Ulbricht
    • 1
  • Jenae M. Neiderhiser
    • 2
  1. 1.The George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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