Literature Review

  • Alberto Garrido
  • M. Ramón Llamas
  • Consuelo Varela-Ortega
  • Paula Novo
  • Roberto Rodríguez-Casado
  • Maite M. Aldaya
Part of the Natural Resource Management and Policy book series (NRMP, volume 35)


First introduced by Allan (1997, 1999), the concept of “virtual water” refers to the volume of water used to produce a commodity, good or service. This term can be defined from two distinct perspectives. From the production-site standpoint, the virtual-water content of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce a product measured at the place where it is produced (Hoekstra and Chapagain 2008). From the consumption-site standpoint, it refers to the volume of water that would have been required to produce a product where it is consumed (Hoekstra and Chapagain 2008).


Water Scarcity Water Footprint Environmental Kuznets Curve Virtual Water Gross National Income 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© La Fundación Marcelino Botín-Sanz de Sautuola y López 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Garrido
    • 1
  • M. Ramón Llamas
    • 2
  • Consuelo Varela-Ortega
    • 1
  • Paula Novo
    • 1
  • Roberto Rodríguez-Casado
    • 1
  • Maite M. Aldaya
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Economic and Social SciencesTechnical University of Madrid (UPM)MadridSpain
  2. 2.Universidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  3. 3.University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

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