The Psychological Impact of Child Soldiering

  • Elisabeth Schauer
  • Thomas Elbert


With almost 80% of the fighting forces composed of child soldiers, this is one characterization of the ‘new wars,’ which constitute the dominant form of violent conflict that has emerged only over the last few decades. The development of light weapons, such as automatic guns suitable for children, was an obvious prerequisite for the involvement of children in modern conflicts that typically involve irregular forces, that target mostly civilians, and that are justified by identities, although the economic interests of foreign countries and exiled communities are usually the driving force.


Traumatic Event Ptsd Symptom Traumatic Experience Traumatic Stress Armed Conflict 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We highly appreciate the hard work and dedication of our team members at the NGO vivo (, as well as the adjunct Department of Clinical Psychology at the University of Konstanz, Germany ( Most importantly, our respect and thanks goes to our local counselors and collaborating colleagues in the various places of (post-)conflict, but especially to all the boys and girls who have experienced abduction and child soldiering and who persevere so bravely in their struggle for a better tomorrow. Research for this chapter was supported by the NGO vivo, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the University of Konstanz, Germany, the European Refugee Funds (EFF and ERF), as well as the ‘Herz fuer Kinder Fund’, Hamburg, Germany.


  1. AACAP. (1998). AACAP Official Action. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with post traumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(10 Supplement), 4S–26S.Google Scholar
  2. Ahern, J., Galea, S., Fernandez, W. G., Koci, B., Waldman, R., & Vlahov, D. (2004). Gender, social support, and posttraumatic stress in postwar Kosovo. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 192(11), 762–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Turkait, F. A., & Ohaeri, J. U. (2008). Psychopathological status, behavior problems, and family adjustment of Kuwaiti children whose fathers were involved in the first gulf war. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 2(1), 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alfredson, L. (2001). Sexuelle Ausbeutung von Kindersoldaten: Globale Dimensionen und Trends [Sexual exploitation of child soldiers: Global dimensions and trends]. Terre des Hommes.Google Scholar
  5. Allen, T., & Schomerus, A. (2006). A Hard Homecoming, Lesssons Learned form the Reception Center Process in Northern Uganda. New York & Washington: United Nations Children Fund & United States Agency for International Development.Google Scholar
  6. Allwood, M. A., Bell-Dolan, D., & Husain, S. A. (2002). Children’s trauma and adjustment reactions to violent and nonviolent war experiences. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(4), 450–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Almqvist, K., & Brandell-Forsberg, M. (1997). Refugee children in Sweden: post-traumatic stress disorder in Iranian preschool children exposed to organized violence. Child Abuse & Negl, 21(4), 351–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Almqvist, K., & Broberg, A. G. (2003). Young children traumatized by organized violence together with their mothers – the critical effects of damaged internal representations. Attachment & human development, 5(4), 367–380; discussion 409–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Altemus, M., Dhabhar, F. S., & Yang, R. (2006). Immune function in PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071, 167–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders – DSM-IV-TR (Vol. 4th ed., Text Rev.). Washington.Google Scholar
  11. Amone-P’Olak, K. (2005). Psychological impact of war and sexual abuse on adolescent girls in Northern Uganda. Intervention, 3(1), 33–45.Google Scholar
  12. Amone-P’Olak, K. (2007). Coping with Life in Rebel Captivity and the Challenge of Reintegrating Formerly Abducted Boys in Northern Uganda. Journal of Refugee Studies, 20(4), 641–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Annan, J., & Blattman, C. (2006). Survey of war affected youth. Kampala: United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF).Google Scholar
  14. APA. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders – DSM-IV-TR (Vol. 4th ed., Text Rev.). Washington.Google Scholar
  15. Barath, A. (2002). Children’s well-being after the war in Kosovo: survey in 2000. Croatian Medical Journal, 43(2), 199–208.Google Scholar
  16. Basoglu, M., Livanou, M., Crnobaric, C., Franciskovic, T., Suljic, E., Duric, D., et al. (2005). Psychiatric and cognitive effects of war in former yugoslavia: association of lack of redress for trauma and posttraumatic stress reactions. The journal of the American Medical Association, 294(5), 580–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Basoglu, M., Paker, M., Paker, O., Ozmen, E., Marks, I., Incesu, C., et al. (1994). Psychological effects of torture: a comparison of tortured with nontortured political activists in Turkey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(1), 76–81.Google Scholar
  18. Bayer, C. P., Klasen, F., & Adam, H. (2007). Association of trauma and PTSD symptoms with openness to reconciliation and feelings of revenge among former Ugandan and Congolese child soldiers. The journal of the American Medical Association, 298(5), 555–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Begic, D., & Jokic-Begic, N. (2001). Aggressive behavior in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Military Medicine, 166(8), 671–676.Google Scholar
  20. Ben Arzi, N., Solomon, Z., & Dekel, R. (2000). Secondary traumatization among wives of PTSD and post-concussion casualties: distress, caregiver burden and psychological separation. Brain injury, 14(8), 725–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Berman, H. (2001). Children and war: current understandings and future directions. Public Health Nursing, 18(4), 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Beth, V. (2001). Child soldiers: Preventing, demobilizing and reintegraing (No. 23). Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
  23. Bichescu, D., Schauer, M., Saleptsi, E., Neculau, A., Elbert, T., & Neuner, F. (2005). Long-term consequences of traumatic experiences: an assessment of former political detainees in Romania. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health, 1(1), 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Blattman, C. (2006). The consequences of child soldiering. Retrieved January 30, 2007, from
  25. Blattman, C. (2007, 4 February 2009). The causes of child soldiering: evidence from Northern Uganda. Paper presented at the Meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago.Google Scholar
  26. Boothby, N. (1994). Trauma and violence among refugee children. In A. J. Marsella, T. Bornemann, S. Ekblad & J. Orley (Eds.), Amidst peril and pain: The mental health and well-being of the world’s refugees (pp. 239–259). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Boothby, N., & Knudsen, C. M. (2000). Waging a new kind of war. Children of the gun. Scientific American, 282(6), 60–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Boscarino, J. A. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder and physical illness: results from clinical and epidemiologic studies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 141–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Boscarino, J. A. (2006). Posttraumatic stress disorder and mortality among U.S. Army veterans 30 years after military service. Annals of Epidemiology, 16(4), 248–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bouta, T. (2005). Gender and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration: Building blocs for Dutch policy. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’.Google Scholar
  31. Bowlby, R. (2004). Fifty Years of Attachment Theory. London: Karnac Books.Google Scholar
  32. Bramsen, I., van der Ploeg, H. M., & Twisk, J. W. (2002). Secondary traumatization in Dutch couples of World War II survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(1), 241–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bremner, J. D., & Narayan, M. (1998). The effects of stress on memory and the hippocampus throughout the life cycle: implications for childhood development and aging. Development and psychopathology, 10(4), 871–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brett, R., & Specht, I. (2004). Young soldiers: Why they choose to fight. Colorado: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  35. Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. D. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 748–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bryne, C. A., & Riggs, D. (1996). The cycle of trauma: relationship aggression in male Vietnam veterans with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Violence and Victims, 11, 213–225.Google Scholar
  37. Burton, D., Foy, D., Bwanausi, C., Johnson, J., & Moore, L. (1994). The relationship between traumatic exposure, family dysfunction, and post-traumatic stress symptoms in male juvenile offenders. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7(1), 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cairns, E. (1996). Children and political violence. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  39. Catani, C., Jacob, N., Schauer, E., Mahendran, K., & Neuner, F. (2008). Family violence, war, and natural disasters: a study of the effect of extreme stress on children’s mental health in Sri Lanka. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Catani, C., Schauer, E., Elbert, T., Missmahl, I., Bette, J. P., & Neuner, F. (2009). War trauma, child labor, and family violence: life adversities and PTSD in a sample of school children in Kabul. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(3), 163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Catani, C., Schauer, E., Onyut, L. P., Schneider, C., Neuner, F., Hirth, M., et al. (2005, June 2005). Prevalence of PTSD and building-block effect in school children of Sri Lanka’s North-Eastern conflict areas. Paper presented at the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS), Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  42. Chilcoat, H. D., & Breslau, N. (1998). Posttraumatic stress disorder and drug disorders: testing causal pathways. Archives of General Psychiatry , 55(10), 913–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Child Soldier. (2001). Questions & Answers. Retrieved 22 September, 2006, from
  44. Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. (2004). Child soldiers global report 2004.Google Scholar
  45. Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. (2007). Who are child soldiers? Questions & Answers Retrieved September 4, 2009, from
  46. Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. (2008). Child soldiers global report 2008. Retrieved February 2009, from
  47. Coker, A. L., Smith, P. H., Thompson, M. P., McKeown, R. E., Bethea, L., & Davis, K. E. (2002). Social support protects against the negative effects of partner violence on mental health. Journal of Womens Health and Gender Based Medicine, 11(5), 465–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Colletta, N., Boutwell, J., & Clare, M. (2001). The World Bank, Demobilization, and Social Reconstruction. In C. C. o. P. D. Conflict (Ed.), Light weapons and civil conflict – controlling the tools of violence. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  49. Collier, P. (2003). Breaking the conflict trap: Civil war and development policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Corbin, J. N. (2008). Returning home: resettlement of formerly abducted children in Northern Uganda. Disasters, 32(2), 316–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dekel, R., & Solomon, Z. (2006). Secondary traumatization among wives of Israeli POWs: the role of POWs’ distress. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41(1), 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Derluyn, I., Broekaert, E., Schuyten, G., & De Temmerman, E. (2004). Post-traumatic stress in former Ugandan child soldiers. The journal Lancet, 363(9412), 861–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Deykin, E. Y. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder childhood and adolescence: A review. Retrieved 01 October 2006, from
  54. Deykin, E. Y., & Buka, S. L. (1997). Prevalence and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder among chemically dependent adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(6), 752–757.Google Scholar
  55. Dickson-Gomez, J. (2002). The sound of barking dogs: violence and terror among Salvadoran families in the postwar. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 16(4), 415–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dirkzwager, A. J., Bramsen, I., Ader, H., & van der Ploeg, H. M. (2005). Secondary traumatization in partners and parents of Dutch peacekeeping soldiers. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 217–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dodge, K. A. (1993). Social-cognitive mechanisms in the development of conduct disorder and depression. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 559–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Druba, V. (2002). The problem of child soldiers. International Review of Education, 48(3–4), 271–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Duncan, R. D. (2000). Childhood maltreatment and college drop-out rates: Implications for child abuse researchers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15(9), 987–995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dutton, M. A., Green, B. L., Kaltman, S. I., Roesch, D. M., Zeffiro, T. A., & Krause, E. D. (2006). Intimate Partner Violence, PTSD, and Adverse Health Outcomes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(7), 955–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dyregrov, A., Gjestad, R., & Raundalen, M. (2002). Children exposed to warfare: a longitudinal study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(1), 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dyregrov, A., Gupta, L., Gjestad, R., & Raundalen, M. (2002). Is the Culture Always Right? Traumatology, 8(3), 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dyregrov, A., & Yule, W. (2006). A Review of PTSD in Children. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 11(4), 176–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Eckart, C., Stoppel, C., Kaufmann, J., Tempelmann, C., Hinrichs, H., & Elbert, T., et al. (2010). Patients with PTSD show structural alterations in neural networks associated with memory processes and emotion regulation. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. in press.Google Scholar
  65. Eddleston, M., Sheriff, M. H. R., & Hawton, K. (1998). Deliberate self harm in Sri Lanka: an overlooked tragedy in the developing world. BMJ, 317(7151), 133–135.Google Scholar
  66. Edleson, J. L. (1999). The overlap between child maltreatment and woman battering. Violence against Women, 5(2), 134–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ehntholt, K. A., & Yule, W. (2006). Practitioner review: assessment and treatment of refugee children and adolescents who have experienced war-related trauma. Journal Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(12), 1197–1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Elbedour, S., ten Bensel, R., & Bastien, D. T. (1993). Ecological integrated model of children of war: individual and social psychology. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17(6), 805–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Elbert, T., Rockstroh, B., Kolassa, I. T., Schauer, M., & Neuner, F. (2006). The Influence of Organized Violence and Terror on Brain and Mind – a Co-Constructive Perspective. In P. Baltes, P. Reuter-Lorenz & F. Rosler (Eds.), Lifespan development and the brain: the perspective of biocultural co-constuctivism (pp. 326–349). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Elbert, T., & Schauer, M. (2002). Burnt into memory. Nature, 419(6910), 883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Elbert, T., Schauer, M., Schauer, E., Huschka, B., Hirth, M., & Neuner, F. (2009). Trauma-related impairment in children – an survey in Sri Lankan provinces affected by armed conflict. Child Abuse and Neglect, 33, 238–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Escalona, R., Achilles, G., Waitzkin, H., & Yager, J. (2004). PTSD and somatization in women treated at a VA primary care clinic. Psychosomatics, 45(4), 291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Famularo, R., Fenton, T., Kinscherff, R., & Augustyn, M. (1996). Psychiatric comorbidity in childhood post traumatic stress disorder. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20(10), 953–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Feshbach, S. (1994). Nationalism, Patriotism and Aggression. In R. Huesmann (Ed.), Aggressive behavior: Current perspectives. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  75. Fletcher, K. E. (1996). Childhood posttraumatic stress disorder. In E. J. Mash & R. Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (pp. 242–276). New York, USA: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  76. Fontana, A., & Rosenheck, R. (1994). Traumatic war stressors and psychiatric symptoms among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War veterans. Psychology and Aging, 9(1), 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Fontana, A., Rosenheck, R., & Brett, E. (1992). War zone traumas and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180(12), 748–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ford, J. D., Campbell, K. A., Storzbach, D., Binder, L. M., Anger, W. K., & Rohlman, D. S. (2001). Posttraumatic stress symptomatology is associated with unexplained illness attributed to Persian Gulf War military service. Psychosom Medicine, 63(5), 842–849.Google Scholar
  79. Fox, N. A., Hane, A. A., & Pine, D. S. (2007). Plasticity for Affective Neurocircuitry: How the Environment Affects Gene Expression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(1), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Franciskovic, T., Stevanovic, A., Jelusic, I., Roganovic, B., Klaric, M., & Grkovic, J. (2007). Secondary traumatization of wives of war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Croatian Medical Journal , 48(2), 177–184.Google Scholar
  81. Friedman, M. J., & Schnurr, P. P. (1995). The Relationship between Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health. In M. J. Friedman, D. S. Charney & A. Y. Deutch (Eds.), Neurobiologica and Clinical Consequences of Stress: From Normal Adaptation to PTSD (pp. 507–524). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers.Google Scholar
  82. Garcia-Peltoniemi, R. E. (1998). Clinical manifestations of psychopathology In NIMH (Ed.), Mental health services for refugees. Rockville MD: US Department of Health.Google Scholar
  83. Gear, S. (2002). Wishing us away: Challenges facing ex-combatants in the ‘new’ South Africa. Violence and Transition Series, 8, from
  84. Glenn, D. M., Beckham, J. C., Feldman, M. E., Kirby, A. C., Hertzberg, M. A., & Moore, S. D. (2002). Violence and hostility among families of Vietnam veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Violence and Victims, 17(4), 473–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gloeckner, F. (2007). PTSD and collective indentity in former ugandan child soldiers. University of Konstanz, Konstanz.Google Scholar
  86. Goenjian, A. K., Stilwell, B. M., Steinberg, A. M., Fairbanks, L. A., Galvin, M. R., Karayan, I., et al. (1999). Moral development and psychopathological interference in conscience functioning among adolescents after trauma. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , 38(4), 376–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Golding, J. M. (1999). Intimate Partner Violence as a Risk Factor for Mental Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Family Violence, 14(2), 99–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Grossmann, K. E., Grossmann, K., & Waters, E. (2005). Attachment from infancy to adulthood: The major longitudinal studies. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  89. Heinemann-Gruder, A., Pietz, T., & Duffy, S. (2003). Turning Soldiers into a Work Force – Demobilization and Reintegration in Post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegonvina (Brief No. 27) (pp. 0–46). Bonn International Center for Conversion.Google Scholar
  90. Hendin, H., & Haas, A. P. (1991). Suicide and guilt as manifestations of PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(5), 586–591.Google Scholar
  91. Hicks, M. H., & Spagat, M. (2008). The Dirty War Index: A Public Health and Human Rights Tool for Examining and Monitoring Armed Conflict Outcomes. PLoS Medicine, 5(12), e243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hiley-Young, B., Blake, D. D., Abueg, F. R., Rozynko, V., & Gusman, F. D. (1995). Warzone violence in Vietnam: an examination of premilitary, military, and postmilitary factors in PTSD in-patients. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(1), 125–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hubbard, J., Realmuto, G. M., Northwood, A. K., & Masten, A. S. (1995). Comorbidity of psychiatric diagnoses with posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of childhood trauma. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , 34(9), 1167–1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Human Rights Watch. (2000). Seeking Protection: Addressing Sexual and Domestic Violence in Tanzania’s Refugee Camps. Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
  95. Human Rights Watch. (2009). DRC: ICC’s First Trial Focuses on Child Soldiers [Electronic Version]. News. Retrieved August 2009 from
  96. Humphreys, M., & Wienstein, J. (2005). Disentangling the determinants of successful disarmament and demobilization (No. 69). Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.Google Scholar
  97. ICRC. (1994). Children and War. Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross.Google Scholar
  98. International Labor Organization (ILO). (2003). Wounded Childhood: The Use of Child Soldiers in Armed Conflict in Central Africa. Retrieved 30 January, 2007, from
  99. Ironson, G., Wynings, C., Schneiderman, N., Baum, A., Rodriguez, M., Greenwood, D., et al. (1997). Posttraumatic stress symptoms, intrusive thoughts, loss, and immune function after Hurricane Andrew. Psychosomatic medicine, 59(2), 128–141.Google Scholar
  100. Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered Assumptions. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  101. Janoff-Bulman, R., Berg, M., & Harvey, J. H. (1998). Disillusionment and the creation of values: from traumatic losses to existential gains. In J. H. Harvey (Ed.), Perspectives on loss – a sourcebook. Philadelphia: Pa.: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  102. Jayawardena, W. (2001, October 21). Over sixty per cent of all forced recruitment to the Tigers are children. Review of the 26th and 27th Bulletin of the University Teachers for Human Rights Jaffna. The Sunday Island, 7–9.Google Scholar
  103. Jensen, P. S., & Shaw, J. (1993). Children as victims of war: current knowledge and future research needs. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , 32(4), 697–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Johnson, H., & Thompson, A. (2008). The development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in civilian adult survivors of war trauma and torture: a review. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(1), 36–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Joseph, S. A., Brewin, C. R., Yule, W., & Williams, R. (1993). Causal attributions and post-traumatic stress in adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(2), 247–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Joshi, P. T., & O’Donnell, D. A. (2003). Consequences of child exposure to war and terrorism. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6(4), 275–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kaldor, M. (1999). New and old wars: organized violence in a global area. London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  108. Kanagaratnam, P., Raundalen, M., & Asbjornsen, A. E. (2005). Ideological commitment and posttraumatic stress in former Tamil child soldiers. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 46(6), 511–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kang, H. K., & Bullman, T. A. (2008). Risk of suicide among US veterans after returning from the Iraq or Afghanistan war zones. Jama, 300(6), 652–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Karunakara, U. K., Neuner, F., Schauer, M., Singh, K., Hill, K., Elbert, T., et al. (2004). Traumatic events and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder amongst Sudanese nationals, refugees and Ugandans in the West Nile. African Health Sciences, 4(2), 83–93.Google Scholar
  111. Keane, T. M., & Kaloupek, D. G. (1997). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in PTSD. Implications for research. Annals of theNew York Academy of Sciences, 821, 24–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kenyon Lischer, S. (2006). Dangerous sanctuaries: Refugee camps, civil war and the dilemmas of humanitarian aid. New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Kessler, R. C. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder: the burden to the individual and to society. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61 (Suppl 5), 4–12; discussion 13–14.Google Scholar
  114. Kingma, K. (2000). Demobilization in sub-saharan Africa. London: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
  115. Kinzie, J. D., Sack, W., Angell, R., Clarke, G., & Ben, R. (1989). A three-year follow-up of Cambodian young people traumatized as children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , 28(4), 501–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kinzie, J. D., Sack, W. H., Angell, R., Manson, S., & Rath, B. R. (1986). The psychiatric effects of massive trauma on Cambodian children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25(3), 370–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kolassa, I. T., & Elbert, T. (2007). Structural and functional neuroplasticity in relation to traumatic stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 326–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kolassa, I.-T., Ertl, V., Eckart, C., Kolassa, S., Onyut, L. P., & Elbert, T. (in press). The probability of spontaneous remission from PTSD depends on the number of traumatic event types experienced. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy.Google Scholar
  119. Kolassa, I. T., Wienbruch, C., Neuner, F., Schauer, M., Ruf, M., Odenwald, M., et al. (2007). Altered oscillatory brain dynamics after repeated traumatic stress. BMC Psychiatry, 7, 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kovacev, L., & Shute, R. (2004). Acculturation and social support in relation to psychosocial adjustment of adolescent refugees resettled in Australia. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 259–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lapierre, C. B., Schwegler, A. F., & Labauve, B. J. (2007). Posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms in soldiers returning from combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(6), 933–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Lauterbach, D., Bak, C., Reiland, S., Mason, S., Lute, M. R., & Earls, L. (2007). Quality of parental relationships among persons with a lifetime history of posstraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(2), 161–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Lee, K. A., Vaillant, G. E., Torrey, W. C., & Elder, G. H. (1995). A 50-year prospective study of the psychological sequelae of World War II combat. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(4), 516–522.Google Scholar
  124. Lester, D. (2005). Suicide in Vietnam veterans: The Suicide Wall. Archives of suicide research, 9(4), 385–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Levendosky, I. A., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2001). Parenting in battered women: the effects of domestic violence on women and their children. Journal of Family Violence, 16(2), 171–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Lewis, D. O. (1992). From abuse to violence: psychophysiological consequences of maltreatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(3), 383–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. MacDonald, C., Chamberlain, K., Long, N., & Flett, R. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder and interpersonal functioning in Vietnam War veterans: a mediational model. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12(4), 701–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Macksoud, M. S., & Aber, J. L. (1996). The war experiences and psychosocial development of children in Lebanon. Child Development, 67(1), 70–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Maclure, R., & Denov, M. (2006). “I didn’t want to die so I joined them”: Structuration and the process of becoming boy soliers in Sierra Leone. Terrorism and Political Violence, 18, 119–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. MacMullin, C., & Loughry, M. (2004). An investigation into the psychosocial adjustment of former abducted child soldiers. Journal of Refugee Studies, 17(4), 460–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Magambo, C., & Lett, R. (2004). Post-traumatic stress in former Ugandan child soldiers. Lancet, 363(9421), 1647–1648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mannarino, A. P., & Cohen, J. A. (1986). A clinical-demographic study of sexually abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 10(1), 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Marshall, G. N., Schell, T. L., Elliott, M. N., Berthold, S. M., & Chun, C. A. (2005). Mental health of Cambodian refugees 2 decades after resettlement in the United States. Jama, 294(5), 571–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. McEwen, B. S. (2000). Allostasis and allostatic load: implications for neuropsychopharmacology. Neuropsychopharmacology, 22(2), 108–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. McFarlane, A. C., Policansky, S. K., & Irwin, C. (1987). A longitudinal study of the psychological morbidity in children due to a natural disaster. Psychological Medicine, 17(3), 727–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. McGuigan, W. M., & Pratt, C. C. (2001). The predictive impact of domestic violence on three types of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25(7), 869–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. McKay, S., & Mazurana, D. (2004). Where are the girls? Girls in fighting forces in Northern Uganda, Sierra Leone and Mozambique: Their lives during and after war. Montreal: Rights and Democracy.Google Scholar
  138. Meaney, M. J., Szyf, M., & Seckl, J. R. (2007). Epigenetic mechanisms of perinatal programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and health. Trends in molecular medicine, 13(7), 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Miranda, J. J., & Patel, V. (2005). Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: Does Mental Health play a Role? PLoS Medicine, 2(10), 0962–0965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Mogapi, N. (2004). Reintegration of soldiers: The missing piece. International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work and Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict, 2(3), 221–225.Google Scholar
  141. Moisander, P. A., & Edston, E. (2003). Torture and its sequel – a comparison between victims from six countries. Forensic science international, 137(2–3), 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Mollica, R. F., Cui, X., McInnes, K., & Massagli, M. P. (2002). Science-based policy for psychosocial interventions in refugee camps: a Cambodian example. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 190(3), 158–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Mollica, R. F., McInnes, K., Poole, C., & Tor, S. (1998). Dose-effect relationships of trauma to symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Cambodian survivors of mass violence. The British journal of psychiatry, 173, 482–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Mollica, R. F., Poole, C., Son, L., Murray, C. C., & Tor, S. (1997). Effects of war trauma on Cambodian refugee adolescents’ functional health and mental health status. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , 36(8), 1098–1106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Morgan, L., Scourfield, J., Williams, D., Jasper, A., & Lewis, G. (2003). The Aberfan disaster: 33-year follow-up of survivors. The British journal of psychiatry, 182, 532–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Muldoon, O. T., & Wilson, K. (2001). Ideological commitment, experience of conflict and adjustment in Northern Irish adolescents. Medicine, conflict, and survival, 17(2), 112–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Nader, K. O., Pynoos, R. S., Fairbanks, L. A., al-Ajeel, M., & al-Asfour, A. (1993). A preliminary study of PTSD and grief among the children of Kuwait following the Gulf crisis. The British journal of Clinical Psychology, 32(Pt 4), 407–416.Google Scholar
  148. Neuner, F., Kurreck, S., Ruf, M., Odenwald, M., Elbert, T., & Schauer, M. (2009). Can asylum seekers with posttraumatic stress disorder be successfully treated? A randomized controlled pilot study. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 34(3), 1–11.Google Scholar
  149. Neuner, F., Onyut, P. L., Ertl, V., Odenwald, M., Schauer, E., & Elbert, T. (2008). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by trained lay counselors in an African refugee settlement: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(4), 686–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Neuner, F., Schauer, E., Catani, C., Ruf, M., & Elbert, T. (2006). Post-tsunami stress: a study of posttraumatic stress disorder in children living in three severely affected regions in Sri Lanka. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(3), 339–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Neuner, F., Schauer, M., Karunakara, U., Klaschik, C., Robert, C., & Elbert, T. (2004). Psychological trauma and evidence for enhanced vulnerability for posttraumatic stress disorder through previous trauma among West Nile refugees. BMC Psychiatry, 4, 34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Odenwald, M., Hinkel, H., & Schauer, E. (2007). Challenges for a future reintegration programme in Somalia: outcomes of an assessment on drug abuse, psychological distress and preferences for reintegration assistance. Intervention, 5(2), 124–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Odenwald, M., Hinkel, H., Schauer, E., Neuner, F., Schauer, M., Elbert, T., et al. (2007). The consumption of khat and other drugs in Somali combatants: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Medicine, 4(12), e341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Odenwald, M., Neuner, F., Schauer, M., Elbert, T., Catani, C., Lingenfelder, B., et al. (2005). Khat use as risk factor for psychotic disorders: a cross-sectional and case-control study in Somalia. BMC Medicine, 3, 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Onyut, L. P., Neuner, F., Ertl, V., Schauer, E., Odenwald, M., & Elbert, T. (2009). Trauma, poverty and mental health among Somali and Rwandese refugees living in an African refugee settlement – an epidemiological study. Conflict and Health, 3, 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Papousek, M., & von Hofacker, N. (1998). Persistent crying in early infancy: a non-trivial condition of risk for the developing mother-infant relationship. Child Care Health and Development, 24(5), 395–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Parent, C., Zhang, T. Y., Caldji, C., Bagot, R., Champagne, J. P., & Meaney, M. (2005). Maternal Care and Individual Differences in Defensive Responses. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(5), 229–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Pearn, J. (2003). Children and war. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 39(3), 166–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Perez, C. M., & Widom, C. S. (1994). Childhood victimization and long-term intellectual and academic outcomes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18(8), 617–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Perry, B. D., & Pollard, R. (1998). Homeostasis, stress, trauma, and adaptation. A neurodevelopmental view of childhood trauma. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7(1), 33–51, viii.Google Scholar
  161. Pfeiffer, A., Ertl, V., Schauer, E., Elbert, T. (submitted). PTSD, Depression and anxiety disorders of formerly abducted children in Northern Uganda.Google Scholar
  162. Pham, N. P., Vinck, P., & Stover, E. (2009). Returning home: Forced conscription, reintegration, and mental health status of former abductees of the Lord’s Resistance Army in northern Uganda. BMC Psychiatry, 9(23).Google Scholar
  163. Pham, P. N., Weinstein, H. M., & Longman, T. (2004). Trauma and PTSD symptoms in Rwanda: implications for attitudes toward justice and reconciliation. Jama, 292(5), 602–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Phillips, D. I. (2007). Programming of the stress response: a fundamental mechanism underlying the long-term effects of the fetal environment? Journal of Internal Medicine, 261(5), 453–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Pittaway, E. (2004). The ultimate betrayal: An examination of the experience of domestic and familiy violence in refugee communities. Retrieved August18, 2006, from
  166. Punamaki, R. L. (1996). Can ideological commitment protect children’s psychological well-being in situations of political violence? Child Development, 67(1), 55–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Punamaki, R. L., & Suleiman, R. (1990). Predictors and effectiveness of coping with political violence among Palestinian children. The British journal of Br J Social Psychology, 29(Pt 1), 67–77.Google Scholar
  168. Qouta, S., Punamaki, R. L., & Sarraj, E. E. (2003). Prevalence and determinants of PTSD among Palestinian children exposed to military violence. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 12(6), 265–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Ramsbotham, O., & Woodhouse, T. (1999). Encyclopedia of International Peacekeeping Operations. Oxford: ABC-Clio.Google Scholar
  170. Redress. (2006). Victims, perpetrators or heroes? Child soldiers before the international criminatl court. London: The Redress Trust, Seeking Reparation for Torture Survivors.Google Scholar
  171. Roberts, B., Ocaka, K. F., Browne, J., Oyok, T., & Sondorp, E. (2008). Factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression amongst internally displaced persons in northern Uganda. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Roberts, S. J. (1996). The sequelae of childhood sexual abuse: a primary care focus for adult female survivors. Nurse practitioner, 21(12 Pt 1), 42, 45, 49–52.Google Scholar
  173. Rohleder, N., & Karl, A. (2006). Role of endocrine and inflammatory alterations in comorbid somatic diseases of post-traumatic stress disorder. Minerva Endocrinol, 31(4), 273–288.Google Scholar
  174. Ruf, M., Neuner, F., Gotthardt, S., Schauer, M., & Elbert, T. (2005, June 2005). PTSD among Refugee Children – Prevalence and Treatment. Paper presented at the European Conference for Traumatic Stress Studies – ESTSS, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  175. Ruscio, A. M., Weathers, F. W., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (2002). Male war-zone veterans’ perceived relationships with their children: the importance of emotional numbing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(5), 351–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Sack, W. H., Angell, R. H., Kinzie, J. D., & Rath, B. (1986). The psychiatric effects of massive trauma on Cambodian children: II. The family, the home, and the school. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 377–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sack, W. H., Him, C., & Dickason, D. (1999). Twelve-year follow-up study of Khmer youths who suffered massive war trauma as children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(9), 1173–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Saigh, P. A., Mroueh, M., & Bremner, J. D. (1997). Scholastic impairments among traumatized adolescents. Behaviour research and therapy, 35(5), 429–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Saigh, P. A., Mroueh, M., Zimmerman, B. J., & Fairbanks, J. A. (1995). Self-efficacy expectations among traumatized adolescents. Behaviour research and therapy, 33(6), 701–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Samper, R. E., Taft, C. T., King, D. W., & King, L. A. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and parenting satisfaction among a national sample of male Vietnam veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(4), 311–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Sandman, C. A., Wadhwa, P. D., Chicz-DeMet, A., Porto, M., & Garite, T. J. (1999). Maternal corticotropin-releasing hormone and habituation in the human fetus. Developmental Psychobiology, 34(3), 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Sandman, C. A., Wadhwa, P. D., Glynn, L., Chicz-DeMet, A., Porto, M., & Garite, T. J. (1999). Corticotropin-releasing Hormone and Fetal Responses in Human Pregnancy. Neuropeptides, 897, 66–75.Google Scholar
  183. Sapolsky, R. M., Krey, L. C., & McEwen, B. S. (1985). Prolonged glucocorticoid exposure reduces hippocampal neuron number: implications for aging. Journal of Neuroscience, 5(5), 1222–1227.Google Scholar
  184. Sapolsky, R. M., Uno, H., Rebert, C. S., & Finch, C. E. (1990). Hippocampal damage associated with prolonged glucocorticoid exposure in primates. Journal of Neuroscience, 10(9), 2897–2902.Google Scholar
  185. Schaal, S., & Elbert, T. (2006). Ten years after the genocide: trauma confrontation and posttraumatic stress in Rwandan adolescents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(1), 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Schalinski, I., Schauer, M., Elbert, T., Schauer, E., Maedl, A., Winkler, N. (submitted). Dissociative Responding to Traumatic Stress as a Risk Factor for PTSD and Depression Symptoms.Google Scholar
  187. Schauer, E. (2008). Trauma therapy for children in war: build-up of an evidence-based large-scale mental health intervention in North-Eastern Sri Lanka. University of Konstanz, Konstanz.Google Scholar
  188. Schauer, E., Catani, C., Mahendran, K., Schauer, M., & Elbert, T. (2005, June). Building local capacity for mental health service provision in the face of large-scale traumatisation: a cascade-model from Sri Lanka. Paper presented at the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS), Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  189. Schauer, M., & Elbert, T. (2008). Neural Network Architecture in response to Traumatic Stress: Psychophysiology of the defense cascade and implications for PTSD and dissociative disorders. Paper presented at the Biannual Meeting of the Society for Applied Neuroscience, San Seville.Google Scholar
  190. Schauer, M., & Elbert, T. (2010). Dissociation: Etiology and treatment. Journal of Psychology, in press.Google Scholar
  191. Schauer, M., Neuner, F., & Elbert, T. (2005). Narrative exposure therapy: A short-term intervention for traumatic stress disorders after war, terror, or torture. Göttingen: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  192. Schauer, M., Neuner, F., Karunakara, U., Klaschik, C., Robert, C., & Elbert, T. (2003). PTSD and the “building block” effect of psychological trauma among West Nile Africans. ESTSS (European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies) Bulletin, 10(2), 5–6.Google Scholar
  193. Schauer, M., & Schauer, E. (2010). Trauma-focused public mental health interventions – A paradigm shift in humanitarian assistance and aid work. In E. Martz (Ed.), Trauma rehabilitation after war and conflict: Community and individual perspectives. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  194. Schnurr, P. P., & Jankowski, M. K. (1999). Physical health and post-traumatic stress disorder: review and synthesis. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 4(4), 295–304.Google Scholar
  195. Schreiber, W. (2005). Das Kriegsgeschehen 2004. Daten und Tendenzen der Kriege und bewaffneten Konflikte. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fuer Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  196. Seckl, J. R., & Holmes, M. C. (2007). Mechanisms of disease: glucocorticoids, their placental metabolism and fetal ‘programming’ of adult pathophysiology. Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism, 3(6), 479–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Seng, J. S., Graham-Bermann, S. A., Clark, M. K., McCarthy, A. M., & Ronis, D. L. (2005). Posttraumatic stress disorder and physical comorbidity among female children and adolescents: results from service-use data. Pediatrics, 116(6), e767–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Servan-Schreiber, D., Le Lin, B., & Birmaher, B. (1998). Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder in Tibetan Refugee Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(8), 874–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Shipherd, J. C., Stafford, J., & Tanner, L. R. (2005). Predicting alcohol and drug abuse in Persian Gulf War veterans: what role do PTSD symptoms play? Addictive Behaviors, 30(3), 595–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Sivayokan, S. (2006). Personal e-mail conversation. In E. Schauer (Ed.). Jaffna, Sri Lanka.Google Scholar
  201. Smith, M. E. (2005). Bilateral hippocampal volume reduction in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis of structural MRI studies. Hippocampus, 15(6), 798–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Smith, P. A., Perrin, S., Yule, W., Hacam, B., & Stuvland, R. (2002). War exposure among children from Bosnia-Hercegovina: psychological adjustment in a community sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(2), 147–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Smith, P. A., Perrin, S., Yule, W., & Rabe-Hesketh, S. (2001). War exposure and maternal reactions in the psychological adjustment of children from Bosnia-Hercegovina. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(3), 395–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Solomon, Z. (1988). The effect of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder on the family. Psychiatry, 51(3), 323–329.Google Scholar
  205. Solomon, Z., Waysman, M., Levy, G., Fried, B., Mikulincer, M., Benbenishty, R., et al. (1992). From front line to home front: a study of secondary traumatization. Family Process, 31(3), 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Somasundaram, D. (1998). Scarred minds: the psychological impact of war on Sri Lankan tamils. London & New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  207. Somasundaram, D. (2001). War trauma and psychosocial problems: patient attendees in Jaffna. International Medical Journal, 8, 193–197.Google Scholar
  208. Somasundaram, D. (2002). Child soldiers: understanding the context. BMJ, 324(7348), 1268–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Somasundaram, D. (2007). Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 1(5).Google Scholar
  210. Sommershof, A., Aichinger, H., Engler, H., Adenauer, H., Catani, C., Boneberg, E. M., et al. (2009). Substantial reduction of naive and regulatory T cells following traumatic stress. Brain Behavior and Immunity.Google Scholar
  211. Sondergaard, C., Olsen, J., Friis-Hasche, E., Dirdal, M., Thrane, N., & Sorensen, H. T. (2003). Psychosocial distress during pregnancy and the risk of infantile colic: a follow-up study. Acta Paediatrica, 92(7), 811–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Southall, D., & Abbasi, K. (1998). Protecting children from armed conflict. The UN convention needs an enforcing arm. BMJ, 316(7144), 1549–1550.Google Scholar
  213. Stavrou, V. (2005). Breaking the silence: Girls forcibly involved in the armed struggle in Angola. Richmond, Virginia, Ottawa: Christian Children’s Fund and Canadian International Development Agency.Google Scholar
  214. Steel, Z., Silove, D., Phan, T., & Bauman, A. (2002). Long-term effect of psychological trauma on the mental health of Vietnamese refugees resettled in Australia: a population-based study. Lancet, 360(9339), 1056–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Szyf, M., McGowan, P., & Meaney, M. J. (2008). The social environment and the epigenome. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 49(1), 46–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Teicher, M. H., Andersen, S. L., Polcari, A., Anderson, C. M., & Navalta, C. P. (2002). Developmental neurobiology of childhood stress and trauma. Psychiatric Clinic sof North America, 25(2), 397–426, vii–viii.Google Scholar
  217. Thabet, A. A., & Vostanis, P. (2000). Post traumatic stress disorder reactions in children of war: a longitudinal study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(2), 291–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Toole, M. J., & Waldman, R. J. (1993). Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health. Jama, 270(5), 600–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Toole, M. J., & Waldman, R. J. (1997). The public health aspects of complex emergencies and refugee situations. Annual Review of Public Health, 18, 283–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. UNHCR. (2003). Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons – Guidelines for Prevention and Response: United Nations Refugee Agency.Google Scholar
  221. UNICEF. (2002). Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse: Armed conflict. Retrieved August, 19, 2006, from
  222. UNICEF. (2005). State of the World’s Children 2005. Retrieved August, 19, 2006, from
  223. UNICEF. (2006). An end to violence against children. New York: United Nations Children Fund.Google Scholar
  224. United Nations. (1987). Convention on the Rights of the Child. New York, USA: UN.Google Scholar
  225. United Nations. (2002). Woman, peace and security; a study submitted by the Secretary-General pursuant to Security Council resolution 1325 (2000). New York: UN.Google Scholar
  226. Uppard, S. (2003). Child soldiers and children associated with the fighting forces. Medicine, conflict, and survival, 19(2), 121–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Utas, M., & Jorgel, M. (2008). The West Side Boys: military navigation in the Sierra Leone civil war. Journal of Modern African Studies, 46(3), 487–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. van de Put, W. A., Somasundaram, D. J., Kall, K., Eisenbruch, M. I., & Thomassen, L. (1998). Community mental health programme in Cambodia: Facts and thoughts on the first year. Pnom Penh, Cambodia: Transcultural Psychosocial Organisation – TPO.Google Scholar
  229. van der Veer, G., Somasundaram, D. J., & Damian, S. (2003). Counselling in areas of armed conflict: the case of Jaffna, Sri Lanka. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 31(4), 417–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Verhey, B. (2004). Reaching the girls: Study on girls association with armed forces and groups in the DRC: Save the Children UK and the NGO Group: CARE, IFESH and IRC.Google Scholar
  231. Vinck, P., Pham, P. N., Stover, E., & Weinstein, H. M. (2007). Exposure to war crimes and implications for peace building in northern Uganda. Jama, 298(5), 543–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Weinstock, M. (1997). Does prenatal stress impair coping and regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 21(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Weinstock, M. (2005). The potential influence of maternal stress hormones on development and mental health of the offspring. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 19(4), 296–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Wessels, M. (2006). Child soldiers: Stolen childhoods. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  235. Widom, C. S. (1989). Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature. Psycholigical Bulletin, 106(1), 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Yehuda, R., Halligan, S. L., & Bierer, L. M. (2001). Relationship of parental trauma exposure and PTSD to PTSD, depressive and anxiety disorders in offspring. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 35(5), 261–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Yule, W. (2002). Alleviating the Effects of War and Displacement on Children. Traumatology, 8(3), 25–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Yule, W., Bolton, D., Udwin, O., Boyle, S., O’Ryan, D., & Nurrish, J. (2000). The long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence: I: The incidence and course of PTSD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(4), 503–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Zuravin, S., McMillen, D., DePanfilis, D., & Risley-Curtiss, C. (1996). The intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment: continuity versus discontinuity. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 11(3), 315–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of KonstanzKonstanzGermany
  2. InternationalKonstanzGermany
  3. 3.University of KonstanzKonstanzGermany

Personalised recommendations