Other Useful Concepts
From a molecular perspective, acids are substances that donate protons (hydrogen nuclei or H+). In the presence of strong acids, water acts as the base that accepts protons to produce hydronium ions (H3O+). Strong acids readily donate protons so the dissociation reaction goes to completion (Table 6.1). Bases include substances that have pairs of unshared, or loosely bound, electrons, which are capable of accepting protons. In the presence of strong bases, water acts as an acid that donates protons to form hydroxide ions (OH−).