Advertisement

Metal and Glass

  • Mary E. Malainey
Chapter
Part of the Manuals in Archaeological Method, Theory and Technique book series (MATT)

Abstract

Compositional analysis of metals and their alloys is used to gain information about provenance, manufacturing processes, and artifact distributions at sites. The examples presented in this section show that elemental compositions of artifacts fashioned from unrefined native metal can be used to relate them to ore sources. Isotope ratios are more commonly used to assess the composition of refined metals, although concerns about changes related to manufacturing processes have been raised. Furthermore, it may not be possible to adequately demonstrate the homogeneity and normality of ore sources if too few samples are analyzed. Finally, a method for dating iron artifacts on the basis of carbon preserved in rust is presented.

Keywords

Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Lead Isotope Trace Element Composition Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Native Copper 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Degryse, P., and J. Schneider 2008 Pliny the Elder and Sr-Nd Isotopes: Tracing the Provenance of Raw Materials for Roman Glass Production. Journal of Archaeological Science 35(7):1993–2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cook, Andrea C., Jeffrey Wadsworth, John R. Southon, and van der Merwe, Nikolaas J. 2003 AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Rusty Iron. Journal of Archaeological Science 30(1):95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Henderson, Julian 2000 The Science and Archaeology of Materials: An Investigation of Inorganic Materials. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  4. Barnes, I. L., J. W. Gramlich, M. G. Diaz, and R. H. Brill 1978 Possible Change of Lead Isotope Ratios in the Manufacture of Pigments: A Fractionation Experiment. In Archaeological Chemistry, vol. 2, edited by G. F. Carter, pp. 273–279. American Chemical Society, Washington.Google Scholar
  5. Baxter, M. J., C. C. Beardah, and S. Westwood 2000 Sample Size and Related Issues in the Analysis of Lead Isotope Data. Journal of Archaeological Science 27(10):973–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooper, H. K., M. J. M. Duke, Antonio Simonetti, and Guang C. Chen 2008 Trace Element and Pb Isotope Provenance Analyses of Native Copper in Northwestern North America: Results of a Recent Pilot Study Using INAA, ICP-MS, LA-MC-ICP-MS. Journal of Archaeological Science 35(6):1732–1747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Budd, P., R. Haggerty, A. M. Pollard, B. Scaife, and R. G. Thomas 1996 Rethinking the Quest for Provenance. Antiquity 70(267):168–174.Google Scholar
  8. Friedman, Elizabeth S., Aaron J. Brody, Marcus L. Young, Jon D. Almer, Carlo U. Segre, and Susan M. Mini 2008 Synchrotron Radiation-Based X-Ray Analysis of Bronze Artifacts from an Iron Age Site in the Judean Hills. Journal of Archaeological Science 35(7):1951–1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ingo, G. M., L.-I. Manfredi, G. Bultrini, and E. Lo Piccolo 1997 Quantitative Analysis of Copper-Tin Bronzes by Means of Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry. Archaeometry 39(1):59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Young, S. M. M., P. Budd, R. Haggerty, and A. M. Pollard 1997 Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Ancient Metals. Archaeometry 39(2):379–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baxter, M. J., H. E. M. Cool, and C. M. Jackson 2006 Comparing Glass Compositional Analyses. Archaeometry 48(3):399–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Levine, Mary A. 2007 Determining the Provenance of Native Copper from Northeastern North America: Evidence from Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 34(4):572–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dungworth, David 1997 Roman Copper Alloys: Analysis of Artefacts from Northern Britain. Journal of Archaeological Science 24(10):901–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rehren, Th. and E. Pernicka 2008 Coins, Artefacts and Isotopes—Archaeometallurgy and Archaeometry. Archaeometry 50(2):232–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. van der Merwe, Nikolaas J. 1969 The Carbon-14 Dating of Iron. University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. 1982 Carbon Isotopes, Photosynthesis, and Archaeology. American Scientist 70:596–606. 1992 Light Stable Isotopes and the Reconstruction of Prehistoric Diets. Proceedings of the British Academy 77:247–264.Google Scholar
  16. Young, Suzanne M. M., and A. M. Pollard 2000 Atomic Spectroscopy and Spectrometry. In Modern Analytical Methods in Art and Archaeology, Chemical Analysis Series, vol. 155, edited by Enrico Ciliberto and Giuseppe Spoto, pp. 21–53. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Sempowski, M. L., A. W. Nohe, R. G. V. Hancock, J.-F. Moreau, F. Kwok, S. Aufreiter, K. Karklins, J. Baart, C. Garrad, and I. Kenyon 2001 Chemical Analysis of 17th Century Red Glass Trade Beads from Northeastern North America and Amsterdam. Archaeometry 43(4):503–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mauk, J. L., and R. G. V. Hancock 1998 Trace Element Geochemistry of Native Copper from The White Pine Mine, Michigan (USA): Implications for Sourcing Artefacts. Archaeometry 40(1):97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lutz, J., and E. Pernicka 1996 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Ancient Copper Alloys: Empirical Values for Precision and Accuracy. Archaeometry 38(2):313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shortland, Andrew, Nick Rogers, and Katherine Eremin 2007 Trace Element Discriminants Between Egyptian and Mesopotamian Late Bronze Age Glasses. Journal of Archaeological Science 34(5):781–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gale, Noel H., and Zofia A. Stos-Gale 1992 Lead Isotope Studies in the Aegean (The British Academy Project). Proceedings of the British Academy 77:63–108. 2000 Lead Isotope Analyses Applied to Provenance Studies. In Modern Analytical Methods in Art and Archaeology, Chemical Analysis Series, vol. 155, edited by Enrico Ciliberto and Giuseppe Spoto, pp. 503–584. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Skoog, Douglas A., and Donald M. West 1982 Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary E. Malainey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyBrandon UniversityBrandonCanada

Personalised recommendations