Skip to main content

Environmental and Economic Costs of Biofuels

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Human Ecology

Abstract

With global shortages of fossil energy, especially oil and natural gas, and heavy biomass energy consumption, emphasis on biofuels as renewable energy sources has developed globally. Though it may seem beneficial to use renewable plant materials for biofuel, the use of crop residues and other biomass raises many environmental and ethical concerns.

The original article Food versus Biofuels: Environmental and Economic Costs appeared in Human Ecology, Vol. 37, No. 1, February 2009.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 39.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    W. Youngquist, personal communication, petroleum geologist, Eugene, Oregon, 2002.

  2. 2.

    The diverse biomass resources (wood, crop residues, and dung) used in developing nations averages about 630 kg per capita per year (Kitani 1999).

  3. 3.

    In addition, capital expenditures include new plant construction costs from $1.05 to $3.00 per gallon of ethanol (Shapouri and Gallagher 2005).

Bibliography

  • Ali, M.B. and McBride, W.D. (1990). Soybeans: State Level Production Costs, Characteristics, and Input Use, 1990. Economic Research Service. Stock no. ERS SB873. 48 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Arkenol. (2004). Our Technology: Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis. (August 2, 2004: www.arkenol.com/Arkenol%20Inc/tech01.html)

  • Arnold, J.E.M. and Jongma, J. (2007). Fuel wood and Charcoal in Developing Countries: An Economic Survey. (January 29, 2008; http://www/fap\o.org/docrep/12015e01.htm)

  • Artuzi, J.P. and Contiero, R.L. (2006). Herbicides Applied in Soybean and the Productivity of Corn in Succession. Pesquisa Agronpecuaria Brasilera 41(7): 1119-1123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barbara, J.S. (2007). The False Promise of Biofuels. Special Report from the International Forum on Globalization and the Institute for Policy Studies. 30 pages

    Google Scholar 

  • Batty, J.C. and Keller, J. (1980). Energy requirements for irrigation. In Pimentel, D. (ed.), Handbook of Energy Utilization in Agriculture. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 35-44

    Google Scholar 

  • Blais, J.F., Mamouny, K., Nlombi, K., Sasseville, J.L., and Letourneau, M. (1995). Les mesures deficacite energetique dans le secteur de leau. J.L. Sassville and J.F. Balis (eds). Les Mesures deficacite Energetique pour Lepuration des eaux Usees Municipales. Scientific Report 405. Vol. 3. INRS-Eau, Quebec

    Google Scholar 

  • BP. (2005). BP Statistical Review of World Energy. British Petroleum, London. 41 pages

    Google Scholar 

  • Brees, M. (2004). Corn Silage Budgets for Northern, Central and Southwest Missouri. (September 1, 2004; http://www.agebb.missouri.edu/mgt/budget/fbm-0201.pdf)

  • Briggs, M. (2004). Widescale Biodiesel Production from Algae. (January 24, 2008; http://unh.edu/p2/biodiesel/article_algae.htm)

  • Brown, L.R. (2002). World’s Rangelands Deteriorating Under Mounting Pressure. (January 24, 2008; http://www.earthpolicy.org/Updates/Updates6.htm)

  • Brown, L.R. (2008). Why Ethanol Production Will Drive World Food Prices Even Higher in 2008. Earth Policy Institute. (January 24, 2008; http://www.earthpolicy.org/Updates/2008/Update69.htm)

  • Brummer, E.C., Burras, C.L., Duffy, M.D., and Moore, K.J. (2000). Switchgrass Production in Iowa: Economic Analysis, Soil Suitability, and Varietal Performance. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

    Google Scholar 

  • Burning Issues. (2006). Burning Issues. (December 7, 2007; http://burningissues.org/health-effects.html)

  • Campbell, C. (2006). Excel Spread Sheets of Oil and Gas of Production and Discovery. Oil Depletion Analysis Centre, London, England

    Google Scholar 

  • Carter, C., Finley, W., Fry, J., Jackson, D. and Willis, L. (2007). Palm Oil Markets and Future Supply. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109(4): 307-314

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cline, W.R. (2007). Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by Country. Peterson Institute for International Economics. (November 5, 2008; http://www.petersoninstitute.org/publications/briefs/cline4037.pdf )

  • College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. (1997). Machinery Cost Estimates: Summary of Operations. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (November 8, 2001; www.aces.uiuc.edu/~vo-ag/custom.htm)

  • Crisp, A. (1999). Wood Residue as an Energy Source for the Forest Products Industry. Australian National University. (July 10, 2006: http://sres.anu.edu.au/associated/fpt/nwfp/woodres/woodres.html)

  • Crop Harvest (2007). Biological System Engineering: Crop Systems. 2007. Washington State University. September 19, 2007. (January 29, 2008; http://www.bsyse.wsu.edu/cropsyst/manual/parameters/crop/harvest.htm)

  • Crop Production (2007). National Agricultural Statistical Services. September 7, 2007. United States Department of Agriculture. September 8, 2007. (January 29, 2008; http://www.usda.gov/ nass/PUBS/TODAYRPT/crop0907.txt)

  • Davis, J.M. and Thomas, V.M. (2006). Systematic Approach to Evaluating Trade-offs Among Fuel Options: The lessons of MTBE. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 498-515

    Google Scholar 

  • Demirba, A. (2001). Biomass Resource Facilities and Biomass Conversion. Elsevier, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  • Dimitrov, K. (2007). GreenFuel Technologies: A Case Study for Industrial Photosythetic Energy Capture. Brisbane, Australia. (March 11, 2008; http://moritz.botany.ut.ee/~oilli/b/Dimitrov.pdf)

  • Diouf, J. (2007). Biofuels a disaster for world food. In EU Coherence. (October 31, 2007; http://eucoherence.org/renderer.do/clearState/false/menuld/227351/return)

  • DOE. (2002). Review of Transport Issues and Comparison of Infrastructure Costs for a Renewable Fuels Standard. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC. (October 8, 2002; http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/service/question3.pdf )

  • EBB. (2007). European Biodiesel Board. (January 29, 2008; http://www/greencarcongress.com/2007/07european-biodie.html)

  • Economic Research Statistics. (1997). Soybeans: Fertilizer Use by State, 1996. (November 11, 2001; http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/data-sets/inputs/9X171/97171/agch0997.txt)

  • EPA. (2002). Wood smoke. U.S Environmental Protection Agency. (October 20, 2002; http://www.webcom.com/-bi/brochure.pdf+wood+smoke+pollution-hl=ene=UTF-8)

  • FAO. (1961-2006). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Rome

    Google Scholar 

  • FAO (2002). Food Balance Sheets. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Rome

    Google Scholar 

  • FAOSTAT. (2001). Food and Agricultural Organization. United Nations. Rome

    Google Scholar 

  • FAOSTAT. (2005). Food and Agricultural Organization. United Nations. Rome

    Google Scholar 

  • Farrell, A.E., Plevin, R.J., Turner, B.T., Jones, A.D., O’Hare, M.O., and Kammen, D.M. (2006). Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals. Science 311: 506-508

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferguson, A.R.B. (2001). Biomass and Energy. Manchester (United Kingdom). Optimum Population Trust 4(1): 14-18

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferguson, A.R.B. (2003). Implications of the USDA 2002 update on Ethanol from Corn. Manchester (United Kingdom). Optimum Population Trust

    Google Scholar 

  • Forest Degradation Data. (2007). Forest Degradation Data. (January 21, 2008; http://home.alltel.net/bsundquist1/df4.html)

  • Forest Service. (2007). The Forest Inventory and Analysis RPA Assessment Tables. U.S

    Google Scholar 

  • Forest Service. (2007). U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Frondel, M., and Peters, J. (2007). Biodiesel: A New Oildorado? Energy Policy 35:1675-1684.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fryrear, D.W., and Bilbro, J.D. (1994). Wind erosion control with residues and related practices. In Unger, P.W. (ed.) Managing Agricultural Residues. Lewis Publ., Boca Raton, FL, p. 7-17

    Google Scholar 

  • Fujino, J., Yamaji, K., and Yamamoto, H. (1999). Biomass-balance Table for Evaluating Bioenergy Resources. Applied Energy 62(3): 75-89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Giampietro, M. and Pimentel, D. (1994). Energy Utilization. In Arntzen, C.J. and Ritter, E.M. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Agricultural Science (Vol. 2). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 63-76

    Google Scholar 

  • Gleick, P.H. (1996). Basic Water Requirements for Human Activities: Meeting Basic Needs. Water International 21: 83-92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldman, J.C. and Ryther, J.H. (1977). Mass production of algae: Engineering aspects. In Mitsui A. et al., (eds.), Biological Solar Energy Conversion. Academic Press: New York, pp. 367-378.

    Google Scholar 

  • Green Car. (2006). Green Car Congress. (January 7, 2008; http://www.greencarcongress.com/2006/07/malarysia_and__in.html)

  • Heinberg, R. (2007). Oil Apocalypse. What happens when demand for oil outstrips Supply? (January 29, 2008; http://www.richardheinberg.com/)

  • Hendrickson, O.Q. (1993). Residential Wood Heating: Forest, the Atmosphere and Public Consciousness. Air and Waste Management Association Conference. The Emission Inventory: Living in a Global Environment. New Orleans, Louisiana

    Google Scholar 

  • Henning, J.C. (1993). Big Bluestem, Indiangrass and Switchgrass. Department of Agronomy, Campus Extension, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO

    Google Scholar 

  • Hinman, H., Pelter, G., Kulp, E., Sorensen, E., and Ford, W. (1992). Enterprise Budgets for Fall Potatoes, Winter Wheat, Dry Beans and Seed Peas under Rill Irrigation. Farm Business Management Reports, Columbia, Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Google Scholar 

  • Hodge, C. (2003). More Evidence Mounts for Banning, Not Expanding, Use of Ethanol in Gasoline. Oil and Gas Journal October 6, 20-25

    Google Scholar 

  • Huang, Wen. (2004). U.S. Increasingly Imports Nitrogen Fertilizer. Amber Waves. Economic Research Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (November 6, 2008; http://www.ers.usda.gov/amberwaves/February04/Findings/USIncreasinglyImports.htm)

  • IEA. (2007). MEDIUM-TERM Oil Market Report. July, 2007. International Energy Agency. (November 5, 2008; http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/iea20070707.pdf)

  • Illinois Corn. (2004). Ethanol’s Energy Balance. (August 10, 2004; http://www.ilcorn.org/Ethanol/Ethan_Studies/Ethan_Energy_Bal/ethan_energy_bal.html)

  • International Energy Annual. (2006). International Energy Annual. U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacobson, M.Z. (2007). Effects of Ethanol (E85) versus Gasoline Vehicles on Cancer and Mortality in the United States. Environmental Science and Technology 41(11):4150-4157

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jölli, D., and Giljum, S. (2005). Unused Biomass Extraction in Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery. SERI Studies No. 3. Sustainable Europe Research Institute, Vienna

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, S. and Dale, B.E. (2005). Life Cycle Assessment of Various Cropping Systems Utilized for Producing Biofuels: Bioethanol and Biodiesel. Biomass Engineering 29: 426-439

    Google Scholar 

  • Kitani, O. (1999). Biomass Resources. In Kitani, O., Jungbluth, T., Pearth, R.M. and Ramdani, A. (eds.), CIGAR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering. St. American Society of Agricultural Engineering, Joseph, MI, pp 6-11

    Google Scholar 

  • Konrad, T. (2007). International Energy Agency Wakes Up and Smells the Peak Oil. (November 5, 2008; http://seekingalpha.com/article/40617-international-energy-agency-wakes-up-and-smells-the-peak-oil)

  • Koplow, D. (2006). Biofuels - At What Cost? Government Support for Ethanol and Biodiesel in the United States. The Global Studies Initiative (GSI) of the International Institute for Sustainable development (IISD). (February 16, 2007; http://www.globalsubsidies.org/IMG/pdf/biofuels_subsidies_us.pdf )

  • Kuby, W.R., Markoja, R. and Nackford, S. (1984). Testing and Evaluation of On-Farm Alcohol Production Facilities. Acures Corporation. Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory. Office of Research and Development. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Cincinnati, OH. 100 p

    Google Scholar 

  • Lal, R. (2004). Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security. Science 34 (2004), pp. 1623-1627

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Larsen, K., Thompson, D., and Harn, A. (2002). Limited and Full Irrigation Comparison for Corn and Grain Sorghum. (September 2, 2002; http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/SoilCrop/extension/Newsletters/2003/Drought/sorghum.html)

  • Larson, W.E. and Cardwell, V.B. (1999). History of U.S. Corn Production. (September 2, 2004; http://citv.unl.edu/cornpro/html/history/history.html)

  • Lunsford, P. (2007). Is the IEA Admitting the Peak Has Been Reached? (November 5, 2008; http://www.relocalize.net/is_the_iea_admitting_the_peak_has_been_reached)

  • Mackay, N. (2002). Official: U.S. Oil at the Heart of the Iraq Crisis. The Sunday Herald (Scotland). October 6, 2002

    Google Scholar 

  • McLaughlin, S.B. and Walsh, M.E. (1998). Evaluating Environmental Consequences of Producing Herbaceous Crops for Bioenergy. Biomass and Bioenergy 14(4): 317-324

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mississippi State University Extension Service. (1999). Agronomy Notes. (July 10, 2006; http://msucares.com/newsletters/agronomy/1999/199910.html)

  • MPOA. (2005). Malaysian Palm Oil Association. Sustainable Palm Oil: RSPO Public Forum on Sustainable Palm Oil, January 2005. Mont Kiara Business Centre, Kula Lumpur. Malaysia Palm Oil Association, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Google Scholar 

  • NAS. (2003). Frontiers in Agricultural Research: Food, Health, Environment, and Communities. Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences. (November 5, 2004; http://dels.nas.edu/rpt_briefs/frontiers_in_ag_final%20for%20print.pdf)

  • NASS. (2003). National Agricultural Statistics Service. (November 5, 2004; http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu)

  • Newton, P.W. (2001). Human Settlements Theme Report. Australian State of the Environment Report 2001. (October 6, 2005; http://www.deh.gov.au/soe/2001/settlements/acknowledgement.html)

  • Nonhebel, S. (2005). Renewable Energy and Food Supply: Will There Be Enough Land? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 9(2): 191-201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ozaktas, T. (2000). Compression Ignition Engine Fuel Properties of a Used Sunflower Oil-diesel Fuel Blend. Energy Sources 22(4): 377-382

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parikka, M. (2004). Global Biomass Fuel Resources. Biomass Bioenergy 27: 613-620

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Patzek, T.W. (2004). Thermodynamics of the Corn-ethanol Biofuel Cycle. Critical Review in Plant Sciences 23(6): 519-567

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Patzek, T.W. (2006). The Real Corn-ethanol Transportation System. (March 28, 2008; http://petroleum.berkeley.edu/patzek/BiofuelQA/Materials/TrueCostofEtOH.pdf)

  • Pimentel, D. (2001). Biomass Utilization, Limits of. In Meyers, R.A. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, Third Ed., Vol. 2, Academic Press, San Diego, 159-171

    Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D. (2003). Ethanol Fuels: Energy Balance, Economics, and Environmental Impacts are Negative. Natural Resources Research 12(2): 127-134

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D. (2006). Soil Erosion: A Food and Environmental Threat. Environment, Development and Sustainability. (2006) 8: 119-137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D. (2008). Renewable and Solar Energy: Economic and Wildlife Conservation Aspects. In Gates, J.E. (ed.), Peak Oil, Economic Growth and Wildlife Conservation. In Press

    Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D. and Patzek, T.W. (2007). Ethanol Production: Energy and Economic Issues Related to U.S. and Brazilian Sugarcane. Natural Resources Research 16(3): 235-242

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D. and Patzek T.W. (2008). Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass and wood; biodiesel production using soybean. In Pimentel D. (ed.), Biofuels, Solar and Wind as Renewable Energy Systems: Benefits and Risks. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 375-396. In Press

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D. and Pimentel, M. (2008). Food, Energy and Society. 3rd Edition. CRC Press. Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL

    Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D. and Wen, D. (2004). China and the world: population, food and resource scarcity. In Tso, T.C. and He, K. (eds.), Dare to Dream: Vision of 2050 Agriculture in China, China Agricultural University Press, Beijing, pp. 103-116

    Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D., Doughty, R., Carothers, C., Lamberson, S., Bora, N., and Lee, K. (2002). Energy inputs in crop production in developing and developed countries. In Lal, R., Hansen, D., Uphoff, N., and Slack, S. (eds.), Food Security and Environmental Quality in the Developing World. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 129-151

    Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D., Berger, B., Filberto, D., Newton, M., Wolfe, B., Karabinakis, E., Clark, S., Poon, E., Abbett, E., and Nandagopal, S. (2004). Water Resources: Current and Future Issues. BioScience 54 (10): 909-918

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D., Cooperstein, S., Randell, H., Filiberto, D., Sorrentino, S., Kaye, B., Nicklin, C., Yagi, J., Brian, J., O’Hern, J., Habas, A., and Weinstein, C. (2007). Ecology of Increasing Diseases: Population Growth and Environmental Degradation. Human Ecology 35(6): 653-668

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D., Gardner, J.B., Bonnifield, A.J., Garcia, X., Grufferman, J.B., Horan, C. M., Rochon, E.T., Schlenker, J.L., and Walling, E.E. (2008a). Energy Efficiency and Conservation for Individual Americans. Environment, Development and Sustainability. In press

    Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D., Marklein, A., Toth, M., Karpoff, M. N., Paul, G. S., McCormack, R., Kyriazis, J., Krueger, T. (2008b). Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land, and Water Resources. Draft Manuscript, Submitted

    Google Scholar 

  • Rasnake, M. (1999). Tillage and Crop Residue Management. (January 31, 2008; www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/agr/agr99/agr99.htm)

  • PRB. (2007). World Population Data Sheet. Population Reference Bureau, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Samson, R. (1991). Switchgrass: A Living Solar Battery for the Prairies. Ecological Agriculture Projects, Mcgill University (Macdonald Campus, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9 Canada.) Copyright @ 1991 REAP Canada

    Google Scholar 

  • Samson, R., Duxbury, P., Drisdale, M., and Lapointe, C. (2000). Assessment of Pelletized Biofuels. PERD Program, Natural Resources Canada, Contract 23348-8-3145/001/SQ

    Google Scholar 

  • Shapouri, H. and Gallagher, P. (2005). USDA’s 2002 Ethanol Cost-of-Product Survey: Agricultural Economic Report Number 841. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh, R.P. (1986). Energy accounting of food processing. In Singh, R.P. (ed.), Energy in Food Processing. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 19-68

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, K.R. (2006). Health Impacts of Household Fuel wood Use in Developing Countries. January 29, 2008; http://ehs.sph.berkeley.edu/krsmith/publications/2006%20pubs/Uasylva.pdf)

  • Socolow, R., Hotinski, R., Greenblatt, J.B. and Pacala, S. (2004). Solving the Climate Problem. Environment 46 (10): 8-19

    Google Scholar 

  • Southwestern University. (2008). Biology Research Finds Rising CO2 Levels Could Decrease the Nutritional Value of Major Food Crops. (February 15, 2008; http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01511.x)

  • Thoenes, P. (2007). Biofuesl and Commodity Markets - Palm Oil Focus. FAO Commodities and Trade Division. Food And Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome

    Google Scholar 

  • Tickell, J. (2006). Biodiesel America: How to Achieve Energy Security, Free America from Middle-east Oil Dependence, and Make Money Growing Fuel. (edited by Meghan Murphy & Claudia Graziano). Yorkshire Press

    Google Scholar 

  • Tilman, D., Hill, J. and Lehman, C. (2006). Carbon-negative Biofuels From Low-input High-diversity Grassland Biomass. Science 314: 1598-1600

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Troeh, F.R., Hobbs, A.H. and Donahue R.L. (2004). Soil and Water Conservation. Prentice Hall, New Jersey

    Google Scholar 

  • UN. (1999). Population Division. Department of Economics and Social Affairs. United Nations Secretariat. The World at Six Billion. Part 1. (November 4, 2007; http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/sixbillion/sixbilpart1.pdf)

  • USCB. (1990). Home Heating Fuels. United States Census Bureau. (December 7, 2007; http://www.census.gov/apsd/cqc/cqc.27.pdf)

  • USCB. (2004-2005). Statistical Abstract of the United States 2004-2005. U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • USCB. (2007). Statistical Abstract of the United States 2007. U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • USDA. (1975). Nutritive Value of American Foods. Agriculture Handbook No. 456. Agricultural Research Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • USDA. (1980-2006). Agricultural Statistics. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • USDA. (1991). Corn-State. Costs of Production. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Economics and Statistics System, Washington, D.C. Stock #94018

    Google Scholar 

  • USDA. (1997a). 1997 Census of agriculture. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (August 28, 2002; http://www.ncfap.org)

  • USDA. (1997b). Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey (1998). 1997 Census of Agriculture. Volume 3, Special Studies, Part 1. 280 p

    Google Scholar 

  • USDA. (2002). Agricultural Statistics. U.S. Department of Agriculture. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • USDA. (2004). Agricultural Statistics, 2004. (CD-ROM) U.S. Department of Agriculture/National Agriculture Statistics Service, Washington, D.C. A1.47/2:2004

    Google Scholar 

  • USDA. (2005). Statistics of Oilseeds, Fats, and Oils. Chapter III. USDA-NASS Agricultural Statistics. (October 20, 2007; http://www.usda.gov/nass/pubs/agr05/acro05.htm)

  • USDA. (2006). Agricultural Statistics, 2006. U.S. Department of Agriculture. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • USDA. (2007). Major Land Uses. Economic Research Services. June 9, 2006. United States Department of Agriculture. September 9, 2007. (January 29, 2008; http://www.ers.usda.gov/data/majorlanduses)

  • Vincent Inc. (2007). Valcent Products. Intial Data From the Vertigro Field Test Bed Plant Reports Average Production of 276 Tons of Algae Bio Mass on a Per Acre/per Year Basis. (January 7, 2008; http://money.cnn.com/news.newsfeeds/articles/marketwire/0339181.htm)

  • WHO. (2005). Malnutrition Worldwide. World Health Organization. (December 7, 2007; http://www.mikeschoice.com/reports/malnutrition_worldwide.htm)

  • Wood Tub Grinders. (2004). Wood Tub Grinders. (August 3, 2004; http://p2library.nfesc.navy.mil/P2_Opportunity_Handbook/7_III_13.html)

  • Youngquist, W. (1997). GeoDestinies: The Inevitable Control of Earth Resources over Nations and Individuals. National Book Company, Portland, Oregon

    Google Scholar 

  • Youngquist, W. and Duncan, R.C. (2003). North American Gas: Data show Supply Problems. Natural Resources Research 12(4): 229-240

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to David Pimentel .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Pimentel, D. et al. (2010). Environmental and Economic Costs of Biofuels. In: Bates, D., Tucker, J. (eds) Human Ecology. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5701-6_22

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics