Respiratory Response toward Olfactory Stimuli might be an Index for Odor-Induced Emotion and Recognition

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 669)


Olfaction is a unique sensory modality. Odor molecules reach olfactory receptors by inspiration, and odor information projects directly to limbic structures not through the thalamus. Odor stimuli thus induce respiratory changes, and simultaneously induce emotion and memory recognition via stimulation of olfactory-related limbic structures. We review the relations between respiration and olfaction, and between brain rhythm and respiration from our studies in normal subjects and in patients with Parkinson’s disease who had been reported to have olfactory impairment.


Normal Subject Olfactory Receptor Respiratory Pattern Olfactory Stimulus Respiratory Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adolph, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., and Damasio, A.R. (1994). Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. Nature. 372, 669–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boiten, F.A., Frijda, N.H., and Wientjes, C.J.E. (1994). Emotions and respiratory pattern : Review and critical analysis. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 17, 103–128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Davis, M. (1992). The role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety. Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 15, 353–375.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Doty, R.L., Deems, D.A., and Stellar, S. (1988) Olfactory dysfunction in parkinsonism: general deficit unrelated to neurologic signs, disease stage, or disease duration. Neurology. 38, 1237–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gottfried, J.A., Deichmann, R., Winston, J.S., and Dolan, R.J. (2002) Functional heterogeneity in human olfactory cortex: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J. Neurosci. 22, 10819–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Harper, R.M., Frysinger, R.C., Trelease, R.B. and Marks, J.D. (1984) State-dependant alternation of respiratory cycle timing by stimulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala. Brain Res. 306, 1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Homma, I., Masaoka, Y., Hirasawa, K., Yamane, F., Hori, T., and Okamoto, Y. (2001) Comparison of source localization of interictal epileptic spike potentials in patients estimated by the dipole tracing method with the focus directly recorded by the depth electrodes. Neurosci. Lett. 304, 1–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hoehn, M.N. and Yahr, M.D. (1967) Parkinsonism: onset, progression, and mortality. Neurology.17: 427–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Liberini, P., Parola, S., Spano, F.R., and Antonini, L. (2000) Olfaction in Parkinson’s disease: methods of assessment and clinical relevance. J. Neurol. 247, 88–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Masaoka, Y. and Homma, I. (2001) The effect of anticipatory anxiety on breathing and metabolism in humans. Respir. Physiol. 128, 171–177.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Masaoka, Y., and Homma, I. (2004) Amygdala and emotional breathing. In J. Champagnat (Eds.), Post-genomic perspectives in modeling and control of breathing (pp. 9–14). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Masaoka, Y., Koiwa, N., and Homma, I. (2005) Inspiratory phase-locked alpha oscillation human olfaction : source generators estimated by a dipole tracing method. J. Physiol. 566(3), 979–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Masaoka, Y., Yoshimura, N., Kawamura, M., Inoue, M., and Homma, I. (2006) Impairment of odor recognition in Parkinson’s disease caused by weak activations of the orbitofrotal cortex. Neurosc. Lett. 412:45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Masaoka, Y., Satoh, H., Kawamura, M., and Homma, I. (2008) Respiratory responses to olfactory stimuli in Parkinson’s disease. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 30;161(2),136–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rolls, E.T. (2001) The rules of formation of the olfactory representations found in the orbitofrontal cortex olfactory areas in primates. Chem. Senses. 26, 595–604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyShowa University School of MedicineTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations