Anatomical Changes of Phrenic Motoneurons During Development

  • Yasumasa Okada
  • Shigefumi Yokota
  • Yoshio Shinozaki
  • Fumikazu Miwakeichi
  • Yoshitaka Oku
  • Yukihiko Yasui
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 669)


Although the phrenic motoneurons are relatively well-developed at the time of birth as compared to non-respiratory motoneurons, they show distinct anatomical changes during postnatal development. In the present review we summarize anatomical changes of phrenic motoneurons during pre- and postnatal development. Cell bodies of phrenic motoneurons migrate into the ventromedial region of the ventral horn of C3-C6 by E13-E14 in the rat. During development the sizes and surface areas of phrenic motoneurons are increased with changes in dendritic morphology.


Primary Dendrite Postnatal Development Lateral Funiculus Phrenic Motoneuron Axonal Conduction Velocity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Allan, D.W. and Greer, J.J. (1997) Development of phrenic motoneuron morphology in the fetal rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 382, 469–479.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cameron, W.E., Brozanski, B.S., and Guthrie, R.D. (1990) Postnatal development of phrenic motoneurons in the cat. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 51, 142–145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cameron, W.E., Fang, H., Brozanski, B.S., and Guthrie, R.D. (1989) The postnatal growth of motoneurons at three levels of the cat neuraxis. Neurosci. Lett. 104, 274–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cameron, W.E., He, F., Kalipatnapu, P., Jodkowski, J.S., and Guthrie, R.D. (1991) Morphometric analysis of phrenic motoneurons in the cat during postnatal development. J. Comp. Neurol. 314, 763–776.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Furicchia, J.V. and Goshgarian, H.G. (1987) Dendritic organization of phrenic motoneurons in the adult rat. Exp. Neurol. 96, 621–634.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Goshgarian, H.G. and Rafols, J.A. (1984) The ultrastructure and synaptic architecture of phrenic motor neurons in the spinal cord of the adult rat. J. Neurocytol. 13, 85–109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Greer, J.J. and Funk, G.D. (2005) Perinatal development of respiratory motoneurons. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 149, 43–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lindsay, A.D., Greer, J.J., and Feldman, J.L. (1991) Phrenic motoneuron morphology in the neonatal rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 308, 169–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Okada, Y., Yokota, S., Shinozaki, Y., Aoyama, R., Yasui, Y., Ishiguro, M., and Oku, Y. (2009) Anatomical architecture and responses to acidosis of a novel respiratory neuron group in the high cervical spinal cord (HCRG) of the neonatal rat. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 648, 387–394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Oku, Y., Masumiya, H., and Okada, Y. (2007) Postnatal developmental changes in activation profiles of the respiratory neuronal network in the rat ventral medulla. J. Physiol. 585, 175–186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Prakash, Y.S., Mantilla, C.B., Zhan, W.Z., Smithson, K.G., and Sieck, G.C. (2000) Phrenic motoneuron morphology during rapid diaphragm muscle growth. J. Appl. Physiol. 89, 563–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Rose, D., Larnicol, N., and Duron, B. (1984) An HRP study of the cat’s spinal respiratory motoneurones during postnatal development. Exp. Brain Res. 56, 458–467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Shinozaki, Y., Okada, Y., Aoyama, R., Nakamura, M., Oku, Y., Chiba, K., and Toyama, Y. (2008) Spatiotemporal activity profile of the phrenic motoneuron population analyzed by voltage-imaging in the newborn rat. J. Physiol. Sci. 58 (Suppl), S115 (abstract).Google Scholar
  14. Song, A., Ashwell, K.W., and Tracey, D.J. (2000) Development of the rat phrenic nucleus and its connections with brainstem respiratory nuclei. Anat. Embryol. (Berl.). 202, 159–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Takahashi, K. and Ninomiya, T. (1985) Observations on the fine structure of the phrenic nucleus in the cervical spinal cord of the cat with special reference to its dendritic bundles. J. Anat. 140, 491–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Yokota, S., Oka, T., Tsumori, T., Nakamura, S., and Yasui, Y. (2007) Glutamatergic neurons in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus project to the rostral ventral respiratory group and phrenic nucleus: A combined retrograde tracing and in situ hybridization study in the rat. Neurosci. Res. 59, 341–346.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasumasa Okada
    • 1
  • Shigefumi Yokota
    • 2
  • Yoshio Shinozaki
    • 3
  • Fumikazu Miwakeichi
    • 4
  • Yoshitaka Oku
    • 5
  • Yukihiko Yasui
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MedicineKeio University Tsukigase Rehabilitation CenterShizuokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy and Morphological NeuroscienceShimane University School of MedicineIzumoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryHino Municipal HospitalTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of EngineeringChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  5. 5.Department of PhysiologyHyogo College of MedicineNishinomiyaJapan

Personalised recommendations