Advertisement

Noradrenergic Control of Trigeminal Motoneurons in Sleep: Relevance to Sleep Apnea

  • Peter B. Schwarz
  • John H. Peever
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 669)

Abstract

Using rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep as a model state, we sought to determine whether noradrenaline functions to strengthen upper airway muscle tone by amplifying glutamatergic excitation on to trigeminal motoneurons. We report that noradrenaline cannot trigger motoneuron excitability on its own, instead acting to facilitate glutamatergic motor excitation.

Keywords

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Masseter Muscle Microdialysis Probe Motoneuron Excitability Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by funds from Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research of Canada (NSERC). PS is the recipient of a CGS Scholarship from NSERC.

References

  1. Berry, R.B., Yamaura, E.M., Gill, K., and Reist, C. (1999) Acute effects of paroxetine on genioglossus activity in obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep 22, 1087–1092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brooks, P.L. and Peever, J.H. (2008) Glycinergic and GABA(A)-mediated inhibition of somatic motoneurons does not mediate rapid eye movement sleep motor atonia. J. Neurosci. 28, 3535–3545.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Burgess, C.R., Lai, Y.Y., Siegel, J.M., and Peever, J.H. (2008) An endogenous glutamatergic drive onto somatic motoneurons contributes to the stereotypical pattern of muscle tone across the sleep-wake cycle. J. Neurosci. 28, 4649–4660.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan, E., Steenland, H.W., Liu, H., and Horner, R.L. (2006) Endogenous excitatory drive modulating respiratory muscle activity across sleep-wake states. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 174, 1264–1273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Devilbiss, D.M., and Waterhouse, B.D. (2004) The effects of tonic locus ceruleus output on sensory-evoked responses of ventral posterior medial thalamic and barrel field cortical neurons in the awake rat. J. Neurosci. 24, 10773–10785.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fung, S.J., and Barnes, C.D. (1987) Membrane excitability changes in hindlimb motoneurons induced by stimulation of the locus coeruleus in cats. Brain Res. 402, 230–242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Horner, R.L. (2007) Respiratory motor activity: Influence of neuromodulators and implications for sleep disordered breathing. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 85, 155–165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kato, T., Kawamura, Y., and Morimoto, T. (1982) Branching of muscle spindle afferents of jaw closing muscles in the cat. J. Physiol. 323, 483–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. McWhorter, A.J., Rowley, J.A., Eisele, D.W., Smith, P.L., and Schwartz, A.R. (1999) The effect of tensor veli palatini stimulation on upper airway patency. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 125, 937–940.Google Scholar
  10. Schwarz, P.B., Yee, N., Mir, S., and Peever, J.H. (2008) Noradrenaline triggers muscle tone by amplifying glutamate-driven excitation of somatic motoneurones in anaesthetized rats. J. Physiol. 586, 5787–5802.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Siegel, J.M. (2005) REM sleep. In M. H. Kreiger, T. Roth, and W.C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (pp. 120–135, 4th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Vornov, J.J. and Sutin, J. (1986) Noradrenergic hyperinnervation of the motor trigeminal nucleus: Alterations in membrane properties and responses to synaptic input. J. Neurosci. 6, 30–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cell and Systems BiologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Cell and Systems Biology and PhysiologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations