A Simplified Model for Explaining Negative Feedback to Beginners in Life Sciences

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 669)


It may not be easy to present to beginners CO2 and O2 having the opposite effect on respiration, using the conventional diagram explaining negative feedback. In the new diagram we developed, the “cause”, its facilitating effect on the “result”, the facilitating and inhibiting noises on the “result”, the current magnitude of the “result”, the set-point, their comparison, and feedback effect on the “cause” are all clearly illustrated. For example, the engine RPM is the “cause”, increase in speed is the “result”, a downhill slope is the facilitating noise, and an uphill slope is the inhibiting noise. By having direction in the “result”, such as INCREASE in speed, INCREASE in O2, and DECREASE in CO2, the same diagram could be used to present CO2 and O2 having the opposite effect on respiration.


Sugar Pneumonia Respiration 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyKagawa Nutrition Junior CollegeTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyHyogo College of MedicineNishinomiyaJapan
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyShowa Univ School of MedTokyoJapan

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