New Experiments Employing Raised-Sine Stimuli Suggest an Unknown Factor Affects Sensitivity to Envelope-Based ITDs for Stimuli Having Low Depths of Modulation

Conference paper


This chapter reports an extension of work reported at the previous ISH meeting wherein threshold interaural temporal disparities (ITDs) were measured with high-frequency, raised-sine stimuli. The threshold ITDs reported here were obtained while varying, independently and parametrically, the depth of modulation, the frequency of modulation, and the value of the exponent of the raised-sine stimuli (which affects the relative “peakedness/dead-time” of their envelopes). Graded increases in the exponent led to graded decreases in threshold ITD for frequencies of modulation ranging from 32 to 256 Hz. Thresholds also generally increased with decreases in modulation depth. Unexpectedly, however, variations of the exponent of the raised sine interacted with variations in depth of modulation such that smaller increases in threshold ITD occurred for decreases in the depth of modulation when the exponent was large. This interaction proved interesting because an interaural correlation-based model that is generally able to account for changes in threshold ITD produced by separate changes in exponent, depth of modulation, and frequency of modulation of raised-sine stimuli could not account for the interaction. The magnitudes of the psychophysically measured effects suggest that it would be beneficial and important that auditory physiologists conduct parallel investigations while employing similar raised-sine stimuli.


Raised-cosine stimuli Inter-aural time difference Binaural hearing Modulation Envelope information 



This research was supported by research grants NIH DC-04147 and DC-04073 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health.


  1. Bernstein LR, Trahiotis C (1994) Detection of interaural delay in high-frequency SAM tones, two-tone complexes, and bands of noise. J Acoust Soc Am 95:3561–3567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernstein LR, Trahiotis C (1996) The normalized correlation: accounting for binaural detection across center frequency. J Acoust Soc Am 100:3774–3784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernstein LR, Trahiotis C (2002) Enhancing sensitivity to interaural delays at high frequencies by using “transposed stimuli”. J Acoust Soc Am 112:1026–1036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernstein LR, Trahiotis C (2003) Enhancing interaural-delay-based extents of laterality at high frequencies by using “transposed stimuli”. J Acoust Soc Am 113:3335–3347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernstein LR, Trahiotis C (2004) The apparent immunity of high-frequency “transposed” stimuli to low-frequency binaural interference. J Acoust Soc Am 116:3062–3069PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernstein LR, Trahiotis C (2005) Measures of extents of laterality for high-frequency “transposed” stimuli under conditions of binaural interference. J Acoust Soc Am 118:1626–1635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernstein LR, Trahiotis C, Hyde EL (1998) Inter-individual differences in binaural detection of low-frequency or high-frequency tonal signals masked by narrow-band or broadband noise. J Acoust Soc Am 103:2069–2078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buell TN, Hafter ER (1988) Discrimination of interaural differences of time in the envelopes of high-frequency signals: integration times. J Acoust Soc Am 84:2063–2066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dreyer A, Delgutte B (2006) Phase locking of auditory-nerve fibers to the envelopes of high-frequency sounds: implications for sound localization. J Neurophysiol 96:2327–2341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ewert SD, Dau T (2000) Characterizing frequency selectivity for envelope fluctuations. J Acoust Soc Am 108:1181–1196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Griffin SJ, Bernstein LR, Ingham NJ, McAlpine D (2005) Neural sensitivity to interaural envelope delays in the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig. J Neurophysiol 93:3463–3478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Irino T, Patterson RD (1997) A time-domain, level-dependent auditory filter: the gammachirp. J Acoust Soc Am 101:412–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Irino T, Patterson RD (2006) A dynamic compressive gammachirp auditory filterbank. IEEE Trans Audio Speech Lang Processing 14:2222–2232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. John MS, Dimitrijevic A, Picton T (2002) Auditory steady-state responses to exponential modulation envelopes. Ear Hear 23:106–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Joris PX, Yin TC (1992) Responses to amplitude-modulated tones in the auditory nerve of the cat. J Acoust Soc Am 91:215–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kohlrausch A, Fassel R, Dau T (2000) The influence of carrier level and frequency on modulation and beat-detection thresholds for sinusoidal carriers. J Acoust Soc Am 108:723–734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McFadden D, Pasanen EG (1976) Lateralization at high frequencies based on interaural time differences. J Acoust Soc Am 59:634–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Moore BCJ (1997) Frequency analysis and pitch perception. In: Crocker M (ed) Handbook of acoustics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Nuetzel JM, Hafter ER (1976) Lateralization of complex waveforms: effects of fine-structure, amplitude, and duration. J Acoust Soc Am 60:1339–1346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nuetzel JM, Hafter ER (1981) Discrimination of interaural delays in complex waveforms: spectral effects. J Acoust Soc Am 69:1112–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Stecker GC, Hafter ER (2002) Temporal weighting in sound localization. J Acoust Soc Am 112:1046–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Unoki M, Irino T, Glasberg B, Moore BCJ, Patterson RD (2006) Comparison of the roex and gammachirp filters asrepresentations of the auditory filter. J Acoust Soc Am 120:1474–1492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. van de Par S, Kohlrausch A (1997) A new approach to comparing binaural masking level differences at low and high frequencies. J Acoust Soc Am 101:1671–1680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Deptartments Of Neuroscience and Surgery (Otolaryngology)University of Connecticut Health CenterFarmingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations