• Dheeraj K. Rajan


Globally, there is increasing recognition of the incidence and effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, the scope of CKD appears to be larger than previously believed. The National Kidney Foundation estimates CKD affects 20 million Americans or one in nine adults with the rate of dialysis patients increasing 5–8% per year.


Seldinger Chronic kidney disease K/DOQI Angioplasty Peripherally inserted catheter (PICC) Autogenous fistulas Dialysis grafts Dialysis catheters 


  1. 1.
    Eknoyan G, Levin NW, Eschbach JW, et al. Continuous quality improvement: DOQI becomes K/DOQI and is updated. National Kidney Foundation’s Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;37(1):179–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feldman HI, Kobrin S, Wasserstein A. Hemodialysis vascular access morbidity. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1996;7(4):523–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hodges TC, Fillinger MF, Zwolak RM, Walsh DB, Bech F, Cronenwett JL. Longitudinal comparison of dialysis access methods: risk factors for failure. J Vasc Surg. 1997;26(6):1009–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ifudu O, Mayers JD, Matthew JJ, Fowler A, Friedman EA. Haemodialysis dose is independent of type of surgically-created vascular access. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13(9):2311–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schwab SJ, Oliver MJ, Suhocki P, McCann R. Hemodialysis arteriovenous access: detection of stenosis and response to treatment by vascular access blood flow. Kidney Int. 2001;59(1):358–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Seldinger SI. Catheter replacement of the needle in percutaneous arteriography; a new technique. Acta Radiol. 1953;39(5):368–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gonsalves CF, Eschelman DJ, Sullivan KL, DuBois N, Bonn J. Incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity PICC and port placement. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2003;26(2):123–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allen AW, Megargell JL, Brown DB, et al. Venous thrombosis associated with the placement of peripherally inserted central catheters. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2000;11(10):1309–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    National Kidney Foundation Kidney Diseases Outcomes Quality Initiative. Clinical practice guidelines for vascular access: update 2000. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;37(1 Suppl 1):S137–81.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Vascular & Interventional Radiology, Department of Medical ImagingUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations