Globally, there is increasing recognition of the incidence and effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, the scope of CKD appears to be larger than previously believed. The National Kidney Foundation estimates CKD affects 20 million Americans or one in nine adults with the rate of dialysis patients increasing 5–8% per year.
KeywordsSeldinger Chronic kidney disease K/DOQI Angioplasty Peripherally inserted catheter (PICC) Autogenous fistulas Dialysis grafts Dialysis catheters
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