Anxiety and Depression: Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

  • Angelo Compare
  • Riccardo Proietti
  • Elena Germani
  • David Janeway


Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for around 16.7 million deaths each year, mainly from heart attacks and strokes. Furthermore, this number is predicted to increase to approximately 25 million deaths by 2020 if current trends continue. Yet fatalities represent only the tip of the iceberg; the greater burden of cardiovascular disease, affecting an estimated 128 million people, is attributable to nonfatal cardiovascular events and their long-term consequences. Though there are well-accepted national guidelines for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiac illness, far less attention has been paid to the impact of psychological risk factors on cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, there is compelling evidence that psychological risk factors confer equal and, in some cases, greater risk than other traditional clinical risk factors (Kubzansky & Kawachi, 2000; Rozanski, Blumenthal, & Kaplan, 1999).


Depressive Symptom Coronary Heart Disease Acute Coronary Syndrome Heart Rate Variability Coronary Artery Disease Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Albert, C. M., Chae, C. U., Rexrode, K. M., Manson, J. E., & Kawachi, I. (2005). Phobic anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death among women. Circulation, 111(4), 480–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amin, A. A., Jones, A. M., Nugent, K., Rumsfeld, J. S., & Spertus, J. A. (2006). The prevalence of unrecognized depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome. American Heart Journal, 152(5), 928–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Appels, A. (1989). Loss of control, vital exhaustion and coronary heart disease. In A. Steptoe & A. Appels (Eds.), Stress, personal control, and health (pp. 215–235). Brussels: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Appels, A., Bar, F., Lasker, J., Flamm, U., & Kop, W. (1997). The effect of a psychological intervention program on the risk of a new coronary event after angioplasty: A feasibility study. Journal of Psychosomal Research, 43(2), 209–217.Google Scholar
  5. Aschbacher, K., Mills, P. J., von Kanel, R., Hong, S., Mausbach, B. T., Roepke, S. K., Dimsdale, J. E., Patterson, T. L., Ziegler, M. G., Ancoli-Israel, S., & Grant, I. (2008). Effects of depressive and anxious symptoms on norepinephrine and platelet P-selectin responses to acute psychological stress among elderly caregivers. Brain Behav Immun, 22(4), 493–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ballenger, J. C., Davidson, J. R., Lecrubier, Y., Nutt, D. J., Kirmayer, L. J., Lepine, J. P., Lin, K. M., Tajima, O., & Ono, Y. (2001). Consensus statement on transcultural issues in depression and anxiety from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl 13), 47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barefoot, J. C., Helms, M. J., Mark, D. B., Blumenthal, J. A., Califf, R. M., Haney, T. L., et al. (1996). Depression and long-term mortality risk in patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 78(6), 613–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barlow, D. (1988). Anxiety and its disorders. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  9. Barlow, D. H., Gorman, J. M., Shear, M. K., & Woods, S. W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 283(19), 2529–2536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barton, D. A., Dawood, T., Lambert, E. A., Esler, M. D., Haikerwal, D., Brenchley, C., et al. (2007). Sympathetic activity in major depressive disorder: Identifying those at increased cardiac risk? Journal of Hypertension, 25(10), 2117–2124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Batten, S. V., Aslan, M., Maciejewski, P. K., & Mazure, C. M. (2004). Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for adult cardiovascular disease and depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65(2), 249–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Beck, A. T., & Beamesderfer, A. (1974). Assessment of depression: The depression inventory. Modern Problems of Pharmacopsychiatry, 7, 151–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1990). Manual for the beck anxiety inventory. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  14. Berkman, L. F., Blumenthal, J., Burg, M., Carney, R. M., Catellier, D., Cowan, M. J., et al. (2003). Effects of treating depression and low perceived social support on clinical events after myocardial infarction: The enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease patients enriched randomized trial. JAMA, 289, 3106–3116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blumenthal, J. A., Lett, H. S., Babyak, M. A., White, W., Smith, P. K., Mark, D. B., et al. (2003). Depression as a risk factor for mortality after coronary artery bypass surgery. Lancet, 362(9384), 604–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bonnet, F., Irving, K., Terra, J. L., Nony, P., Berthezene, F., & Moulin, P. (2005). Anxiety and depression are associated with unhealthy lifestyle in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis, 178(2), 339–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, N., Melville, M., Gray, D., Young, T., Munro, J., Skene, A. M., et al. (1999). Quality of life four years after acute myocardial infarction: Short form 36 scores compared with a normal population. Heart, 81(4), 352–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brydon, L., Magid, K., & Steptoe, A. (2006). Platelets, coronary heart disease, and stress. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 20(2), 113–119.Google Scholar
  19. Carney, R. M., Freedland, K. E., Miller, G. E., & Jaffe, A. S. (2002). Depression as a risk factor for cardiac mortality and morbidity: A review of potential mechanisms. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53(4), 897–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carney, R. M., Freedland, K. E., Rich, M. W., & Jaffe, A. S. (1995). Depression as a risk factor for cardiac events in established coronary heart disease: A review of possible mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 17(2), 142–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Carney, R. M., Rich, M. W., Freedland, K. E., Saini, J., teVelde, A., Simeone, C., & Clark, K. (1988). Major depressive disorder predicts cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50(6), 627–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. de Jonge, P., Ormel, J., van den Brink, R. H., van Melle, J. P., Spijkerman, T. A., Kuijper, A., et al. (2006). Symptom dimensions of depression following myocardial infarction and their relationship with somatic health status and cardiovascular prognosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(1), 138–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Denollet, J. (1993). Emotional distress and fatigue in coronary heart disease: The global mood scale (GMS). Psychological Medicine, 23, 111–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dimsdale, J. E. (2010). What does heart disease have to do with anxiety? Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56(1), 47–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dong, M., Giles, W. H., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Williams, J. E., Chapman, D. P., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease: Adverse childhood experiences study. Circulation, 110(13), 1761–1766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Frasure-Smith, N., & Lesperance, F. (2003). Depression – a cardiac risk factor in search of a treatment. JAMA, 289(23), 3171–3173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Frasure-Smith, N., & Lesperance, F. (2008). Depression and anxiety as predictors of 2-year cardiac events in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(1), 62–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Frasure-Smith, N., Lesperance, F., Prince, R. H., Verrier, P., Garber, R. A., Juneau, M., et al. (1997). Randomised trial of home-based psychosocial nursing intervention for patients recovering from myocardial infarction. Lancet, 350(9076), 473–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Frasure-Smith, N., Lesperance, F., & Talajic, M. (1995a). Depression and 18-month prognosis after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 91(4), 999–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Frasure-Smith, N., Lesperance, F., & Talajic, M. (1995b). The impact of negative emotions on prognosis following myocardial infarction: Is it more than depression? Health Psychology, 14(5), 388–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Freedland, K. E., Rich, M. W., Skala, J. A., Carney, R. M., Davila-Roman, V. G., & Jaffe, A. S. (2003). Prevalence of depression in hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(1), 119–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Freedland, K. E., Skala, J. A., Carney, R. M., Raczynski, J. M., Taylor, C. B., Mendes de Leon, C. F., et al. (2002). The Depression Interview and Structured Hamilton (DISH): Rationale, development, characteristics, and clinical validity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64(6), 897–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gehi, A., Haas, D., Pipkin, S., & Whooley, M. A. (2005). Depression and medication adherence in outpatients with coronary heart disease: Findings from the Heart and Soul Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165(21), 2508–2513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Giles, D. E., Perlis, M. L., Reynolds, C. F., 3rd, & Kupfer, D. J. (1998). EEG sleep in African-American patients with major depression: A historical case control study. Depression and Anxiety, 8(2), 58–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Glassman, A. H., O’Connor, C. M., Califf, R. M., Swedberg, K., Schwartz, P., Bigger, J. T., Jr., et al. (2002). Sertraline treatment of major depression in patients with acute MI or unstable angina. JAMA, 288(6), 701–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gomez-Caminero, A., Blumentals, W. A., Russo, L. J., Brown, R. R., & Castilla-Puentes, R. (2005). Does panic disorder increase the risk of coronary heart disease? A cohort study of a national managed care database. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(5), 688–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Greenland, P., Alpert, J. S., Beller, G. A., Benjamin, E. J., Budoff, M. J., Fayad, Z. A., et al. (2010a). 2010 ACCF/AHA guideline for assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation, 122(25), e584–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Greenland, P., Alpert, J. S., Beller, G. A., Benjamin, E. J., Budoff, M. J., Fayad, Z. A., et al. (2010b). 2010 ACCF/AHA guideline for assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56(25), e50–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Guise, B. J. (2000). Behavioral medicine strategies for heart disease prevention: The example of smoking cessation. Preventive Cardiology, 3(1), 10–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Haines, A. P., Imeson, J. D., & Meade, T. W. (1987). Phobic anxiety and ischaemic heart disease. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed), 295(6593), 297–299.Google Scholar
  41. Hamilton, M. (1959). The assessment of anxiety states by rating. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 32(1), 50–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Herrmann, C. (1997). International experiences with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale–a review of validation data and clinical results. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 42(1), 17–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hirschfeld, R. M., Keller, M. B., Panico, S., Arons, B. S., Barlow, D., Davidoff, F., et al. (1997). The National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association consensus statement on the undertreatment of depression. JAMA, 277(4), 333–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hollon, S. D., Munoz, R. F., Barlow, D. H., Beardslee, W. R., Bell, C. C., Bernal, G., et al. (2002). Psychosocial intervention development for the prevention and treatment of depression: Promoting innovation and increasing access. Biological Psychiatry, 52(6), 610–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Huffman, J. C., Smith, F. A., Blais, M. A., Januzzi, J. L., & Fricchione, G. L. (2008). Anxiety, independent of depressive symptoms, is associated with in-hospital cardiac complications after acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 65(6), 557–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jakobsen, A. H., Foldager, L., Parker, G., & Munk-Jorgensen, P. (2008). Quantifying links between acute myocardial infarction and depression, anxiety and schizophrenia using case register databases. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109(1–2), 177–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Janeway, D. (2009). An integrated approach to the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety within the practice of cardiology. Cardiology in Review, 17(1), 36–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Janszky, I., Ahnve, S., Lundberg, I., & Hemmingsson, T. (2010). Early-onset depression, anxiety, and risk of subsequent coronary heart disease: 37-year follow-up of 49,321 young Swedish men. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56(1), 31–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jiang, W., Alexander, J., Christopher, E., Kuchibhatla, M., Gaulden, L. H., Cuffe, M. S., et al. (2001). Relationship of depression to increased risk of mortality and rehospitalization in patients with congestive heart failure. Archives of Internal Medicine, 161(15), 1849–1856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kawachi, I., Colditz, G. A., Ascherio, A., Rimm, E. B., Giovannucci, E., Stampfer, M. J., & Willett, W. C. (1994). Prospective study of phobic anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation, 89(5), 1992–1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kawachi, I., Sparrow, D., Vokonas, P. S., & Weiss, S. T. (1994). Symptoms of anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease. The Normative Aging Study. Circulation, 90(5), 2225–2229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kirmayer, L. J. (2001). Cultural variations in the clinical presentation of depression and anxiety: Implications for diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl 13), 22–28; discussion 29–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Klerman, G., Weissman, M., Rounsaville, B., & Chevron, E. (1984). Interpersonal psychotherapy of depression. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  54. Kop, W. J. (1999). Chronic and acute psychological risk factors for clinical manifestations of coronary artery disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(4), 476–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kop, W. J., & Ader, D. N. (2001). Assessment and treatment of depression in coronary artery disease patients. Italian Heart Journal, 2(12), 890–894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kop, W. J., & Ader, D. N. (2006). Depression in coronary artery disease: Assessment and treatment. In E. Molinari, A. Compare, & G. Parati (Eds.), Clinical psychology and heart disease (pp. 190–120). Italia: Springer.Google Scholar
  57. Koszycki, D. (2006). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in patients with coronary heart disease. In E. Molinari, A. Compare, & G. Parati (Eds.), Clinical psychology and heart disease (pp. 369–390). Italia: Springer.Google Scholar
  58. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9), 606–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2003). The Patient Health Questionnaire-2: Validity of a two-item depression screener. Medical Care, 41(11), 1284–1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kubzansky, L. D., & Kawachi, I. (2000). Going to the heart of the matter: Do negative emotions cause coronary heart disease? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 48(4–5), 323–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kubzansky, L. D., Kawachi, I., Weiss, S. T., & Sparrow, D. (1998). Anxiety and coronary heart disease: A synthesis of epidemiological, psychological, and experimental evidence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 20(2), 47–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lane, D., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Beevers, D. G., & Lip, G. Y. (2000). Do depression and anxiety predict recurrent coronary events 12 months after myocardial infarction? Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 93(11), 739–744.Google Scholar
  63. Lane, D., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Beevers, D. G., & Lip, G. Y. (2001). Mortality and quality of life 12 months after myocardial infarction: Effects of depression and anxiety. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63(2), 221–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lesperance, F., & Frasure-Smith, N. (1996). Negative emotions and coronary heart disease: Getting to the heart of the matter. Lancet, 347(8999), 414–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lesperance, F., & Frasure-Smith, N. (2000). Depression in patients with cardiac disease: A practical review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 48(4–5), 379–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lesperance, F., Frasure-Smith, N., Koszycki, D., Laliberte, M. A., van Zyl, L. T., Baker, B., et al. (2007). Effects of citalopram and interpersonal psychotherapy on depression in patients with coronary artery disease: The Canadian Cardiac Randomized Evaluation of Antidepressant and Psychotherapy Efficacy (CREATE) trial. JAMA, 297(4), 367–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lesperance, F., Frasure-Smith, N., & Talajic, M. (1996). Major depression before and after myocardial infarction: Its nature and consequences. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58(2), 99–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lichtman, J. H., Bigger, J. T., Jr., Blumenthal, J. A., Frasure-Smith, N., Kaufmann, P. G., Lesperance, F., et al. (2008). Depression and coronary heart disease: Recommendations for screening, referral, and treatment: A science advisory from the American Heart Association Prevention Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: Endorsed by the American Psychiatric Association. Circulation, 118(17), 1768–1775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lin, K. M. (2001). Biological differences in depression and anxiety across races and ethnic groups. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl 13), 13–19; discussion 20–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Linden, W. (2000). Psychological treatments in cardiac rehabilitation: Review of rationales and outcomes. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 48(4–5), 443–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Linden, W., Phillips, M. J., & Leclerc, J. (2007). Psychological treatment of cardiac patients: A meta-analysis. European Heart Journal, 28(24), 2972–2984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lowe, B., Unutzer, J., Callahan, C. M., Perkins, A. J., & Kroenke, K. (2004). Monitoring depression treatment outcomes with the patient health questionnaire-9. Medical Care, 42(12), 1194–1201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Maier, K., Chatkoff, D., & Burg, M. M. (2006). Depression and CHD: Prevalence, prognosis; pathology and treatment. In E. Molinari, A. Compare, & G. Parati (Eds.), Clinical psychology and heart disease (pp. 85–98). Italia: Springer.Google Scholar
  74. Mallik, S., Krumholz, H. M., Lin, Z. Q., Kasl, S. V., Mattera, J. A., Roumains, S. A., & Vaccarino, V. (2005). Patients with depressive symptoms have lower health status benefits after coronary artery bypass surgery. Circulation, 111(3), 271–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mallik, S., Spertus, J. A., Reid, K. J., Krumholz, H. M., Rumsfeld, J. S., Weintraub, W. S., et al. (2006). Depressive symptoms after acute myocardial infarction: Evidence for highest rates in younger women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(8), 876–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Martens, E. J., Hoen, P. W., Mittelhaeuser, M., de Jonge, P., & Denollet, J. (2010). Symptom dimensions of post-myocardial infarction depression, disease severity and cardiac prognosis. Psychological Medicine, 40(5), 807–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Martens, E. J., Nyklicek, I., Szabo, B. M., & Kupper, N. (2008). Depression and anxiety as predictors of heart rate variability after myocardial infarction. Psychological Medicine, 38(3), 375–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mayou, R. A., Gill, D., Thompson, D. R., Day, A., Hicks, N., Volmink, J., & Neil, A. (2000). Depression and anxiety as predictors of outcome after myocardial infarction. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62(2), 212–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McManus, D., Pipkin, S. S., & Whooley, M. A. (2005). Screening for depression in patients with coronary heart disease (data from the Heart and Soul Study). American Journal of Cardiology, 96(8), 1076–1081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Miyawaki, T., Kawamura, H., Komatsu, K., & Yasugi, T. (1991). Chemical stimulation of the locus coeruleus: Inhibitory effects on hemodynamics and renal sympathetic nerve activity. Brain Research, 568(1–2), 101–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Miyawaki, E., & Salzman, C. (1991). Autonomic nervous system tests in psychiatry: Implications and potential uses of heart rate variability. Integrated Psychiatry, 7, 21–28.Google Scholar
  82. Moser, D. K., & De Jong, M. J. (2006). Anxiety and heart disease. In E. Molinari, A. Compare, & G. Parati (Eds.), Clinical psychology and heart disease (pp. 121–148). Italia: Springer.Google Scholar
  83. Moser, D. K., & Dracup, K. (1996). Is anxiety early after myocardial infarction associated with subsequent ischemic and arrhythmic events? Psychosomatic Medicine, 58(5), 395–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Moser, D. K., Mckinley, S., Riegel, B., Doering, L., & Garvin, B. (2002). Perceived control reduces in-hospital complications associated with anxiety in acute myocardial infarction (Abstract). Circulation, 106, 369.Google Scholar
  85. Musselman, D. L., Evans, D. L., & Nemeroff, C. B. (1998). The relationship of depression to cardiovascular disease: Epidemiology, biology, and treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(7), 580–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Nabi, H., Shipley, M. J., Vahtera, J., Hall, M., Korkeila, J., Marmot, M. G., et al. (2010). Effects of depressive symptoms and coronary heart disease and their interactive associations on mortality in middle-aged adults: The Whitehall II Cohort Study. Heart, 96(20), 1645–1650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Olshansky, B. (2007). Placebo and nocebo in cardiovascular health: Implications for healthcare, research, and the doctor-patient relationship. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 49(4), 415–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Orth-Gomer, K., Schneiderman, N., Wang, H. X., Walldin, C., Blom, M., & Jernberg, T. (2009). Stress reduction prolongs life in women with coronary disease: The Stockholm Women’s Intervention Trial for Coronary Heart Disease (SWITCHD). Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 2(1), 25–32.Google Scholar
  89. Orth-Gomer, K., Wamala, S. P., Horsten, M., Schenck-Gustafsson, K., Schneiderman, N., & Mittleman, M. A. (2000). Marital stress worsens prognosis in women with coronary heart disease: The Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study. JAMA, 284(23), 3008–3014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Palmatier, M. A., Kang, A. M., & Kidd, K. K. (1999). Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles. Biological Psychiatry, 46(4), 557–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Parakh, K., Sakhuja, A., Bhat, U., & Ziegelstein, R. C. (2008). Platelet function in patients with depression. Southern Medical Journal, 101(6), 612–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Paterniti, S., Zureik, M., Ducimetiere, P., Touboul, P. J., Feve, J. M., & Alperovitch, A. (2001). Sustained anxiety and 4-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 21(1), 136–141.Google Scholar
  93. Phillips, A. C., Batty, G. D., Gale, C. R., Deary, I. J., Osborn, D., MacIntyre, K., & Carroll, D. (2009). Generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and their comorbidity as predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: The Vietnam experience study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(4), 395–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Poland, R. E., Rao, U., Lutchmansingh, P., McCracken, J. T., Lesser, I. M., Edwards, C., et al. (1999). REM sleep in depression is influenced by ethnicity. Psychiatry Research, 88(2), 95–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Poland, R. E., Rubin, R. T., Lesser, I. M., Lane, L. A., & Hart, P. J. (1987). Neuroendocrine aspects of primary endogenous depression. II. Serum dexamethasone concentrations and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical activity as determinants of the dexamethasone suppression test response. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44(9), 790–795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Pozuelo, L., Tesar, G., Zhang, J., Penn, M., Franco, K., & Jiang, W. (2009). Depression and heart disease: What do we know, and where are we headed? Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 76(1), 59–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401.Google Scholar
  98. Rao, U., Poland, R. E., Lutchmansingh, P., Ott, G. E., McCracken, J. T., & Lin, K. M. (1999). Relationship between ethnicity and sleep patterns in normal controls: Implications for psychopathology and treatment. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 33(5), 419–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Rechlin, T., Weis, M., & Claus, D. (1994). Heart rate variability in depressed patients and differential effects of paroxetine and amitriptyline on cardiovascular autonomic functions. Pharmacopsychiatry, 27(3), 124–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Rieckmann, N., Gerin, W., Kronish, I. M., Burg, M. M., Chaplin, W. F., Kong, G., et al. (2006). Course of depressive symptoms and medication adherence after acute coronary syndromes: An electronic medication monitoring study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 48(11), 2218–2222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Croughan, J., & Ratcliff, K. S. (1981). National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Its history, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38(4), 381–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Roest, A. M., Martens, E. J., de Jonge, P., & Denollet, J. (2010). Anxiety and risk of incident coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56(1), 38–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Roest, A. M., Thombs, B. D., Grace, S. L., Stewart, D. E., Abbey, S. E., & de Jonge, P. (2011). Somatic/affective symptoms, but not cognitive/affective symptoms, of depression after acute coronary syndrome are associated with 12-month all-cause mortality. Journal of Affective Disorders, 131(1–3), 158–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosal, M. C., Downing, J., Littman, A. B., & Ahern, D. K. (1994). Sexual functioning post-myocardial infarction: Effects of beta-blockers, psychological status and safety information. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38(7), 655–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rose, S. K., Conn, V. S., & Rodeman, B. J. (1994). Anxiety and self-care following myocardial infarction. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 15(4), 433–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rozanski, A., Blumenthal, J. A., Davidson, K. W., Saab, P. G., & Kubzansky, L. (2005). The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice: The emerging field of behavioral cardiology. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 45(5), 637–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rozanski, A., Blumenthal, J. A., & Kaplan, J. (1999). Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. Circulation, 99(16), 2192–2217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Rugulies, R. (2002). Depression as a predictor for coronary heart disease: A review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(1), 51–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ruo, B., Rumsfeld, J. S., Hlatky, M. A., Liu, H., Browner, W. S., & Whooley, M. A. (2003). Depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life: The Heart and Soul Study. JAMA, 290(2), 215–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Schulz, R., Beach, S. R., Ives, D. G., Martire, L. M., Ariyo, A. A., & Kop, W. J. (2000). Association between depression and mortality in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160(12), 1761–1768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sirois, B. C., & Burg, M. M. (2003). Negative emotion and coronary heart disease. A review. Behavior Modification, 27(1), 83–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Smolderen, K. G., Spertus, J. A., Reid, K. J., Buchanan, D. M., Krumholz, H. M., Denollet, J., et al. (2009). The association of cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms with depression recognition and outcomes after myocardial infarction. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 2(4), 328–337.Google Scholar
  113. Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Kroenke, K., Linzer, M., deGruy, F. V., 3rd, Hahn, S. R., et al. (1994). Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care: The PRIME-MD 1000 study. JAMA, 272(22), 1749–1756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Statistics, N. C. f. H. (2000). Healthy People 2000 Review, 1998–99. Hyattsville: Public Health Service.Google Scholar
  115. Strike, P. C., & Steptoe, A. (2004). Psychosocial factors in the development of coronary artery disease. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 46(4), 337–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sullivan, M. D., LaCroix, A. Z., Spertus, J. A., & Hecht, J. (2000). Five-year prospective study of the effects of anxiety and depression in patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 86(10), 1135–1138, A1136, A1139.Google Scholar
  117. Thombs, B. D., de Jonge, P., Coyne, J. C., Whooley, M. A., Frasure-Smith, N., Mitchell, A. J., et al. (2008). Depression screening and patient outcomes in cardiovascular care: A systematic review. JAMA, 300(18), 2161–2171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. van den Broek, K. C., Nyklicek, I., van der Voort, P. H., Alings, M., Meijer, A., & Denollet, J. (2009). Risk of ventricular arrhythmia after implantable defibrillator treatment in anxious type D patients. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 54(6), 531–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Van der Kooy, K., van Hout, H., Marwijk, H., Marten, H., Stehouwer, C., & Beekman, A. (2007). Depression and the risk for cardiovascular diseases: Systematic review and meta analysis. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(7), 613–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. van Melle, J. P., de Jonge, P., Spijkerman, T. A., Tijssen, J. G., Ormel, J., van Veldhuisen, D. J., et al. (2004). Prognostic association of depression following myocardial infarction with mortality and cardiovascular events: A meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66(6), 814–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Walters, K., Rait, G., Petersen, I., Williams, R., & Nazareth, I. (2008). Panic disorder and risk of new onset coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiac mortality: Cohort study using the general practice research database. European Heart Journal, 29(24), 2981–2988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Wang, H. X., Leineweber, C., Kirkeeide, R., Svane, B., Schenck-Gustafsson, K., Theorell, T., & Orth-Gomer, K. (2007). Psychosocial stress and atherosclerosis: Family and work stress accelerate progression of coronary disease in women. The Stockholm Female Coronary Angiography Study. Journal of Internal Medicine, 261(3), 245–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Watkins, L. L., Blumenthal, J. A., Babyak, M. A., Davidson, J. R., McCants, C. B., Jr., O’Connor, C., & Sketch, M. H., Jr. (2010). Phobic anxiety and increased risk of mortality in coronary heart disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(7), 664–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Watkins, L. L., Blumenthal, J. A., & Carney, R. M. (2002). Association of anxiety with reduced baroreflex cardiac control in patients after acute myocardial infarction. American Heart Journal, 143(3), 460–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Watkins, L. L., Blumenthal, J. A., Davidson, J. R., Babyak, M. A., McCants, C. B., Jr., & Sketch, M. H., Jr. (2006). Phobic anxiety, depression, and risk of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with coronary heart disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(5), 651–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Weissman, M. M., Klerman, G. L., Prusoff, B. A., Sholomskas, D., & Padian, N. (1981). Depressed outpatients. Results one year after treatment with drugs and/or interpersonal psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38(1), 51–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Weissman, M. M., Markowitz, J. C., & Klerman, G. L. (2000). Comprehensive guide to interpersonal psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  128. Weissman, M. M., Prusoff, B. A., Dimascio, A., Neu, C., Goklaney, M., & Klerman, G. L. (1979). The efficacy of drugs and psychotherapy in the treatment of acute depressive episodes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136(4B), 555–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Whang, W., Kubzansky, L. D., Kawachi, I., Rexrode, K. M., Kroenke, C. H., Glynn, R. J., et al. (2009). Depression and risk of sudden cardiac death and coronary heart disease in women: Results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 53(11), 950–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Whang, W., Shimbo, D., Kronish, I. M., Duvall, W. L., Julien, H., Iyer, P., et al. (2010). Depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality in unstable angina pectoris (from the Coronary Psychosocial Evaluation Studies [COPES]). American Journal of Cardiology, 106(8), 1104–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Whooley, M. A., de Jonge, P., Vittinghoff, E., Otte, C., Moos, R., Carney, R. M., et al. (2008). Depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease. JAMA, 300(20), 2379–2388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Wittstein, I. S. (2010). Depression, anxiety, and platelet reactivity in patients with coronary heart disease. European Heart Journal, 31(13), 1548–1550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Wittstein, I. S., Thiemann, D. R., Lima, J. A., Baughman, K. L., Schulman, S. P., Gerstenblith, G., et al. (2005). Neurohumoral features of myocardial stunning due to sudden emotional stress. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(6), 539–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Young, Q. R., Ignaszewski, A., Fofonoff, D., & Kaan, A. (2007). Brief screen to identify 5 of the most common forms of psychosocial distress in cardiac patients: Validation of the screening tool for psychological distress. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 22(6), 525–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Yusuf, S., Hawken, S., Ounpuu, S., Dans, T., Avezum, A., Lanas, F., et al. (2004). Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): Case-control study. Lancet, 364(9438), 937–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Zafar, M. U., Paz-Yepes, M., Shimbo, D., Vilahur, G., Burg, M. M., Chaplin, W., et al. (2010). Anxiety is a better predictor of platelet reactivity in coronary artery disease patients than depression. European Heart Journal, 31(13), 1573–1582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ziegelstein, R. C. (2001). Depression in patients recovering from a myocardial infarction. JAMA, 286(13), 1621–1627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Ziegelstein, R. C., Kim, S. Y., Kao, D., Fauerbach, J. A., Thombs, B. D., McCann, U., et al. (2005). Can doctors and nurses recognize depression in patients hospitalized with an acute myocardial infarction in the absence of formal screening? Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(3), 393–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Zuidersma, M., Thombs, B. D., & de Jonge, P. (2011). Onset and recurrence of depression as predictors of cardiovascular prognosis in depressed acute coronary syndrome patients: A systematic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 80(4), 227–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Zung, W. W. (1971). A rating instrument for anxiety disorders. Psychosomatics, 12(6), 371–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelo Compare
    • 1
  • Riccardo Proietti
    • 2
  • Elena Germani
    • 3
  • David Janeway
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Human SciencesUniversity of BergamoBergamoItaly
  2. 2.Cardiac Electrophysiology LaboratoryLuigi Sacco HospitalMilanoItaly
  3. 3.Centro Diagnostico ItalianoMilanoItaly
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryNew York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA

Personalised recommendations