Bacterial Effectors: Learning on the Fly
A common defining characteristic of pathogenic bacteria is the expression of a repertoire of effector molecules that have been named virulence factors. These bacterial factors include a variety of proteins, such as toxins that are internalized by receptors and translocate across endosomal membranes to reach the cytosol, as well as others that are introduced directly into the cell by means of bacterial secretory apparatuses. Given the importance of these effectors for understanding bacterial pathogenicity, significant effort has been made to dissect their molecular mechanisms of action and their respective roles during infection. Herein we will discuss how Drosophila have been used as a model system to study these important microbial effectors, and to understand their contribution to pathogenicity.
KeywordsYersinia Pestis Innate Immune Pathway Bacterial Effector Powerful Genetic Tool Bacterial Effector Protein
We thank Emmanuel Lemichez for critical reading of the manuscript. LMS is supported by startup funds from MGHfC, MGH ECOR and grants from NIH/NIAID. NS is supported by grants from the NIH/NIAID (AI060025 and AI074958) and from BWF. NP is supported by a grant from the NIH (U54 AI057159). LB is supported by a fellowship from the Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer.