Incorporation of Innate Immune Effector Mechanisms in the Formulation of a Vaccine Against HIV-1
The realization of a major role for events that occur during acute viremia that dictate the course of disease both in HIV-1 infected humans and susceptible SIV infected non-human primates has prompted an intense interest in studies of the contribution of innate immune effector mechanisms. It is reasoned that findings from such studies may be important and need to be incorporated into the design and formulation of potential candidate vaccines against HIV-1. This review serves to outline the various non-human primate models that can best serve to address this issue, a summary of our knowledge on the various subsets of NK cells (one of the major innate immune cell lineage) that have an impact on the course of disease, the potential pathways that regulate their function and the potential role of the KIRs on SIV-induced disease course. Finally, the major points from this report and the data presented on similar subjects by other investigators is utilized to provide a summary of the potential future directions that we need to take in efforts to move this field forward.
KeywordsInnate Immune System Rhesus Macaque Innate Immune Mechanism Sooty Mangabey Inhibitory KIRs
The authors are grateful to Ms. Stephanie Ehnert and her staff at the Yerkes National Primate Center for their outstanding help in conducting the studies that are summarized in this report. In addition, the authors would like to acknowledge support by the National Institutes of Health RO1 AI078773, the Thailand Research Fund Senior Scholars Program and the Yerkes Base grant DRR-00165. The technical assistance of Dr. Susan T. Stephenson and Ms. Dawn Little is gratefully acknowledged.
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