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Fenamiphos and Related Organophosphorus Pesticides: Environmental Fate and Toxicology

  • Tanya Cáceres
  • Mallavarapu MegharajEmail author
  • Kadiyala Venkateswarlu
  • Nambrattil Sethunathan
  • Ravi Naidu
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 205)

Abstract

Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are among the most common chemical classes used in crop and livestock protection and account for an estimated 34% of worldwide insecticide sales (Singh and Walker 2006). During the last 60 yr, approximately 150 different OP chemicals have been used to protect crops, livestock, and human health (Casida and Quistad 2004). In recent years, the OP compounds have been the most widely used group of insecticides in Australia. In addition to fenamiphos (nematicide), isofenphos, and coumaphos (insecticides), the most commonly used OP pesticides include parathion methyl, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and profenfos. Approximately 500 t of OP-active ingredients comprising about 30 distinct compounds have been used annually in Australia for many years (Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering 2002).

Keywords

Methyl Parathion Organophosphorus Pesticide Methyl Parathion Hydrolase Major Degradation Product Sheepshead Minnow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project was funded by the Australian Government through an IPRS scholarship in collaboration with UniSA and CRC CARE.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanya Cáceres
    • 1
  • Mallavarapu Megharaj
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kadiyala Venkateswarlu
    • 2
  • Nambrattil Sethunathan
    • 3
  • Ravi Naidu
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE)University of South AustraliaMawson LakesAustralia
  2. 2.Sri Krishnadevaraya UniversityAnantapurIndia
  3. 3.Ushodaya ApartmentsSecunderabadIndia

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