Microbial Endocrinology: A Personal Journey

  • Mark Lyte


The development of Microbial Endocrinology is covered from a decidedly personal perspective. Specific focus is given to the role of Microbial Endocrinology in the evolutionary symbiosis between man and microbe as it relates to both health and disease. Future avenues of research are suggested.


Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Yersinia Enterocolitica Audience Member Bacterial Interaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ader, R., and Cohen, N. 1975. Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression. Psychosom Med 37:333–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ader, R., and Cohen, N. 1993. Psychoneuroimmunology: conditioning and stress. Annu Rev Psychol 44:53–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ader, R., Cohen, N., and Felten, D. 1995. Psychoneuroimmunology: interactions between the nervous system and the immune system. Lancet 345:99–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balcar, V. J. 1990. Presence of a highly efficient “binding” to bacterial contamination can distort data from binding studies. Neurochem Res 15:1237–1238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrett, J. F. 2005. Can biotech deliver new antibiotics? Curr Opin Microbiol 8:498–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Felten, D. L., Felten, S. Y., Sladek, J. R., Jr., Notter, M. D., Carlson, S. L., Bellinger, D. L., and Wiegand, S. J. 1990. Fluorescence histochemical techniques for catecholamines as tools in neurobiology. J Microsc 157 (Pt 3):271–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Finch, R. 2007. Innovation – drugs and diagnostics. J Antimicrob Chemother 60 Suppl 1:i79–i82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fink, G. 2000. Encyclopedia of stress. Academic, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  9. Forsythe, P., Sudo, N., Dinan, T., Taylor, V.H., and Bienenstock, J. 2010. Mood and gut feelings. Brain Behav Immun 24:9–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Freestone, P. P., and Lyte, M. 2008. Microbial endocrinology: experimental design issues in the study of interkingdom signalling in infectious disease. Adv Appl Microbiol 64:75–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gruchow, H. W. 1979. Catecholamine activity and infectious disease episodes. J Human Stress 5:11–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guthrie, G. D., and Nicholson-Guthrie, C. S. 1989. gamma-Aminobutyric acid uptake by a bacterial system with neurotransmitter binding characteristics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:7378–7381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Guthrie, G. D., Nicholson-Guthrie, C. S., and Leary, H. L., Jr. 2000. A bacterial high-affinity GABA binding protein: isolation and characterization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 268:65–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Irwin, M. R. 2008. Human psychoneuroimmunology: 20 years of discovery. Brain Behav Immun 22:129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li, W., Dowd, S., Scurlock, B., Acosta-Martinez, V., and Lyte, M. 2009. Memory and learning behavior in mice is temporally associated with diet-induced alterations in gut bacteria. Physiol Behav 96:557–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lyte, M. 1992. The role of catecholamines in gram-negative sepsis. Med Hypotheses 37:255–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lyte, M. 1993. The role of microbial endocrinology in infectious disease. J. Endocrinol. 137:343–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lyte, M. 2004. Microbial endocrinology and infectious disease in the 21st century. Trends Microbiol 12:14–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lyte, M., and Ernst, S. 1992. Catecholamine induced growth of gram negative bacteria. Life Sci. 50:203–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lyte, M., and Freestone, P. 2009. Microbial endocrinology comes of age. Microbe 4:169–175.Google Scholar
  21. Lyte, M. 2009a. The microbial organ in the gut as a driver of homeostasis and disease. Med Hypotheses, Nov 8 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  22. Lyte, M. 2009b. Microbial endocrinology as a basis for improved l-DOPA bioavailability in Parkinson’s patients treated for Helicobacter pylori. Med Hypotheses, Dec 2 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  23. Lyte, M. 2009c. Reciprocal gut-brain evolutionary symbiosis provokes and amplifies the postinjury systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Surgery 146:950–954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lyte, M., Nelson, S. G., and Baissa, B. 1990a. Examination of the neuroendocrine basis for the social conflict-induced enhancement of immunity in mice. Physiol Behav 48:685–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lyte, M., Nelson, S. G., and Thompson, M. L. 1990b. Innate and adaptive immune responses in a social conflict paradigm. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 57:137–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Miczek, K. A., Maxson, S. C., Fish, E. W., and Faccidomo, S. 2001. Aggressive behavioral phenotypes in mice. Behav Brain Res 125:167–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Minuk, G. Y. 1986. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by eight common bacterial pathogens. Scand J Infect Dis 18:465–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mullard, A. 2009. Microbiology: Tinker, bacteria, eukaryote, spy. Nature 459:159–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nietfeld, J. C., Yeary, T. J., Basaraba, R. J., and Schauenstein, K. 1999. Norepinephrine stimulates in vitro growth but does not increase pathogenicity of Salmonella choleraesuis in an in vivo model. Adv Exp Med Biol 473:249–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Parsek, M. R., and Greenberg, E. P. 2005. Sociomicrobiology: the connections between quorum sensing and biofilms. Trends Microbiol 13:27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Peterson, P. K., Chao, C. C., Molitor, T., Murtaugh, M., Strgar, F., and Sharp, B. M. 1991. Stress and the pathogenesis of infectious disease. Rev Infect Dis 13:710–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Renaud, M., and Miget, A. 1930. Role favorisant des perturbations locales causees par l’ adrenaline sur le developpement des infections microbiennes. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil 103:1052–1054.Google Scholar
  33. Riley, M. A., and Wertz, J. E. 2002. Bacteriocins: evolution, ecology, and application. Annu Rev Microbiol 56:117–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shapiro, J. A. 2007. Bacteria are small but not stupid: cognition, natural genetic engineering and socio-bacteriology. Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 38:807–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Singer, M. 2007. Catecholamine treatment for shock – equally good or bad? Lancet 370:636–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Smith, H. 1996. What happens in vivo to bacterial pathogens? Ann N Y Acad Sci 797:77–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sperandio, V., Torres, A. G., Jarvis, B., Nataro, J. P., and Kaper, J. B. 2003. Bacteria–host ­communication: the language of hormones. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8951–8956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sudo, N., Chida, Y., Aiba, Y., Sonoda, J., Oyama, N., Yu, X., Kubo, C., and Koga, Y. 2004. Postnatal microbial colonization programs the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system for stress response in mice. J Physiol 558:263–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Traub, W. H., Bauer, D., and Wolf, U. Virulence of clinical and fecal isolates of Clostridium perfringens Type A for outbred NMRI mice. Chemotherapy 37:426–435.Google Scholar
  40. Webster Marketon, J. I., and Glaser, R. 2008. Stress hormones and immune function. Cell Immunol 252:16–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. West, S. A., Griffin, A. S., Gardner, A., and Diggle, S. P. 2006. Social evolution theory for microorganisms. Nat Rev Microbiol 4:597–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wikoff, W., Anfora, A., Liu, J., Schultz, P., Lesley, S., Peters, E., and Siuzdak, G. 2009. Metabolomics analysis reveals large effects of gut microflora on mammalian blood metabolites. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:3698–3703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Willshaw, G. A., Thirlwell, J., Jones, A. P., Parry, S., Salmon, R. L., and Hickey, M. 1994. Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in beefburgers linked to an outbreak of diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and Haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Britain. Lett Appl Microbiol 19:304–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Winder, T. R., Minuk, G. Y., Sargeant, E. J., and Seland, T. P. 1988. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and sepsis-related encephalopathy. Can J Neurol Sci 15:23–25.Google Scholar
  45. Woolf, P. D., McDonald, J. V., Feliciano, D. V., Kelly, M. M., Nichols, D., and Cox, C. 1992. The catecholamine response to multisystem trauma. Arch Surg 127:899–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of PharmacyTexas Tech University Health Sciences CenterLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations