Identifying Cardiorespiratory Insufficiency Outside the ICU

  • M. R. Pinsky
  • M. Hravnak
Conference paper


The pressure to increase intensive care unit (ICU) bed availability continues to grow as the need to streamline patient throughput in acute care facilities intensifies across the world. Thus, patients with higher illness acuity levels are transferred from ICUs and into step-down units for continued monitoring via non-invasive monitoring tools. These non-invasive tools include electrocardiography, automated sphygmomanometer and pulse oximetry to give estimates of heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR), blood pressure (BP) and peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (Sp02), respectively.


Medical Emergency Team Meet Activation Rapid Response System Acute Care Facility Normal Vital Sign 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media Inc. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Pinsky
    • 1
  • M. Hravnak
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Critical Care MedicineUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.School of NursingUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

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