Retrieval-Monitoring-Feedback (RMF) Technique for Producing Efficient and Durable Student Learning

  • Katherine A. Rawson
  • John Dunlosky
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE, volume 28)


In this chapter, we overview the Retrieval-Monitoring-Feedback (RMF) technique, a learning technology designed to promote both durable and efficient student learning of key concepts from course material. In the RMF technique, key concepts are first presented for initial study followed by RMF trials. Phase 1 of each RMF trial involves retrieval practice, in which the concept term is presented as a cue and the student attempts to type the correct definition into the computer. In Phase 2 of each trial, the student then monitors the quality of the retrieved response using computer-generated feedback, which helps students evaluate whether their response includes the key ideas comprising the definition. In Phase 3, the correct answer is presented intact for a self-paced restudy opportunity. The RMF program uses the student’s monitoring judgments to schedule subsequent practice trials for each item. Recent research has shown that the RMF technique can yield relatively impressive levels of long-term retention of key concepts. The RMF technique can be used to support learning for materials from many different topic domains and promises to benefit a wide range of learners.



The research reported here was ­supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education, through Grant # R305A080316 to Kent State University. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute or the US Department of Education.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kent State UniversityKentUSA

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