Neurosociology pp 157-169 | Cite as

Consciousness, Quale, and Subjective Experience

  • David D. Franks


From its origins in the philosophical structure of Chicago social behaviorism, symbolic interaction has retained a focus on consciousness and minded behavior. This is especially true when it focuses on lived experience. Concerted interest in the validity of studying the subjective aspects of life was given formal recognition in 1990 when Carolyn Ellis and Michael Flaherty organized a symbolic interaction symposium on the subject. This effort encouraged more scholars to be open to the study of consciousness and subjectivity. One participant in the 1990 symposium was William Wentworth (2002:15) who, like Mead, considers consciousness to be a result of the individual’s participation in social communication body, brain, and social interaction. For Mead, consciousness was an emergent from social behavior; it was not a precondition for such an act; the act was a precondition for it (Mead 1934:18).


Subjective Experience Direct Experience Hard Problem Subjective Aspect Binding Problem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adolphs, R., H. Damasio, D. Tranel and A. R. Damasio (1996). Cortical systems for the recognition of emotion in facial expressions. Journal of Neuroscience, 16(23), 7678–7687.Google Scholar
  2. Arendt, H. (1958). The human condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  3. Blackmore, S. J. (2005). Conversations on consciousness. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Brothers, L. (1997). Friday’s footprint: How society shapes the human mind. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Brothers, L. (2002a). Mistaken identity: The mind-brain problem reconsidered. New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  6. Brothers, L. (2002b). The social brain: A project for integrating primate behavior and neurophysiology in a new domain. In Cacioppo, J. T. et al. (Ed.), Foundations in neuroscience, pp. 367–385. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  7. Burton, R. (2008). On being certain: Believing you are right even when you are wrong. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  8. Chalmers, D. J. (1996). The conscious mind: In search of a fundamental theory. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Damasio, A. R. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  10. Dennett, D. (2001). Are we explaining consciousness yet?. Cognition, 79(1–2), 221–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dewey, J. and A. Bentley (1949). Knowing and the known. Boston: The Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  12. Edelman, G. M. (1992). Bright air, brilliant fire: On the matter of the mind. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  13. Emirbayer, M. (1997). Manifesto for a relational sociology. American Journal of Sociology, 103(2), 281–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Franks, D. D. and J. Marolla (1976). Efficacious actions and social approval as interacting dimensions of self-esteem: A tentative formulation through construct validation. Sociometry, 39, 324–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gazzaniga, M. S. (1992). Nature’s mind: The biological roots of thinking, emotions, sexuality, language, and intelligence. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  16. Gazzaniga, M. S. (2006). The ethical brain: The science of our moral dilemmas. New York: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
  17. Katz, J. (1999). How emotions work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  18. Lilly, J. (1973). The center of the cyclone. Toronto: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  19. Lyng, S. and D. D. Franks (2002). Sociology and the real world. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  20. McAulay, L. S. (1977). The relationship between visual impairment and personal space with electrodermal response as indication of intrusion. Austin, TX: University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  21. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self & society: From the standpoint of a social behaviorist. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  22. Mead, G. H. (1936). Movements of thought in the 19th century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  23. Ramachandran, V. S. (1996). The evolutionary biology of self-deception, laughter, dreaming and depression: Some clues from anosognosia. Medical Hypotheses, 47(5), 347–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ramachandran, V. S. and S. Blakeslee (1998). Phantoms in the brain: Probing the mysteries of the human mind. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
  25. Ramachandran, V. S. and W. Hirstein (1999). Three laws of qualia: What neurology tells us about the biological functions of consciousness, qualia and the self. In S. Gallagher, & J. Shear (Eds.), Models of the self: Part 2, pp. 83–111. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.Google Scholar
  26. Searle, J. R. (2002). Consciousness and language. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Searle, J. R. (2003). Rationality in action. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  28. Wentworth, W. M. (2002). Life upon life: The sociogenisis of human consciousness. North Chelmsford, MA: Courier Custom Publisher Inc.Google Scholar
  29. Wentworth, W. and J. Ryan (1992). Balancing body, mind and culture: The place of emotion in social life. In: D. D. Franks, & V. Gecas (Eds.), Social perspectives on emotion, Vol. 1, pp. 25–46. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  30. White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66(5), 297–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations