The Hand and Wrist



Figures 5.1–5.3 illustrates the surface anatomy of the proximal wrist. The wrist is composed of distal radius and ulna, which articulate with each other to form the radioulnar joint. The distal radius also articulates with the scaphoid and lunate bones [1]. The distal ulna articulates with the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), which functions much like the meniscus of the knee. The TFCC also has ligamentous attachments to the lunate, capitate, and triquetrum [1]. The distal wrist is composed of the eight carpal bones arranged in two rows. The proximal carpals (scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform) are closely approximated to the radius, while the distal carpals (trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate) are closely associated with the metacarpal bones. When the wrist ­deviates radially or dorsiflexes, the scaphoid flexes palmarly, which puts it in a precarious position to be injured when a patient falls, particularly when the patient falls on an outstretched hand [2]. Figure 5.4 shows the basic anatomy of the wrist.


Distal Radius Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Flexor Tendon Distal Ulna Outstretched Hand 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Lichtman DM, Joshi A (2008) Acute injuries of the distal radioulnar joint and triangular fibrocartilage complex. AAOS Instr Course Lect 52:175–183Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lohan D et al (2007) Injuries to the carpal bones revisited. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 36:164–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moore KL (1985) The upper limb – the hand. In: Clinical oriented anatomy. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 786–809Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lampe EW (1969) Surgical anatomy of the hand with special reference to infections and trauma. Clin Symp 21(3):66–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daniels JM (2004) Hand and wrist injuries: part 1, nonemergent evaluation. Am Fam Physician 69(8):1941–1948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eathorne SW (2005) The wrist: clinical anatomy and physical examination – an update. Prim Care 32:17–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Family and Community Medicine, SIU Primary Care Sports Medicine FellowshipSIU School of MedicineQuincyUSA

Personalised recommendations