Where These Contaminants Are Found

  • Jeffrey L. Kornacki
Part of the Food Microbiology and Food Safety book series (FMFS)


The potential for in-factory environmental contamination exists for any food not biocidally treated in its end-use container. Microbes enter the factory environment from a variety of sources including worker’s skin, garments, air, and ingredients, among others. Air, water, tools, workers, traffic, and other means transfer microbes in the non-sterile factory environment into niches that are inaccessible for cleaning and sanitation. Within these niches many bacteria can attach themselves to underlying surfaces using cell wall-bound structures given enough time. Bacteria that attach and are allowed to form biofilms can be protected from cleaners and sanitizers. This chapter contains many examples of operating practices and structures that may create growth niches or transmit microbes in the factory environment. Over 30 photographs illustrate these practices.


Yersinia Enterocolitica Operating Practice Product Contamination Indirect Risk Food Contact Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kornacki Microbiology Solutions, Inc.McFarlandUSA

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