Solving Microbial Spoilage Problems in Processed Foods

Part of the Food Microbiology and Food Safety book series (FMFS)


This chapter surveys common microbial food spoilage processes. The chapter is organized by food products and includes sections addressing spoilage in meat, poultry, fish; dairy products (milk, butter, cheese); beverage products; bakery products; canned foods; fruit and confectionery products; and emulsions. It addresses the isolation and identification of spoilage organisms and provides several case studies as examples. It introduces various organisms responsible for spoilage including Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria, Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and fungal contaminants. Throughout the chapter, attention is given to when, where, and how spoilage organisms enter the food processing chain. Troubleshooting techniques are suggested. The effect (or lack of effect) of heating, dehydration, pH change, cooling, and sealing on various organisms is explained throughout. The chapter contains four tables that connect specific organisms to various spoilage manifestations in a variety of food products.


Debaryomyces Hansenii Aerobic Plate Count Salad Dressing Mold Spore Spoilage Organism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anifantaki K, Metaxopoulos J, Kammenou M, Drosinos EH, Vlassi M (2002) The effect of smoking, packaging and storage temperature on the bacterial greening of frankfurters caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. Mesenteroides. Ital J Food Sci 14(2):135–144Google Scholar
  2. Battey AS, Duffy S, Schaffner D (2002) Modeling yeast spoilage in cold-filled ready-to-drink beverages with Saccharomyces cerevisiaie, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Candida lipolytica. Appl Environ Microbiol 68(4):1901–1906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Betts RP (2000) Conventional and rapid analytical microbiology. In: Stringer M, Davis C (eds) Chilled Foods: A Comprehensive Guide, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  4. Bordova O, Baranova M, Laukova A, Rozanska A, Rola J (2002) Hygiene of pasteurized milk depending on psychrotrophic organisms. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 46:325–329Google Scholar
  5. Chou YE, Edwards CG, Luedecke LO, Bates MP, Clark S (2003) Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria and aging temperature affect calcium lactate crystallization in cheddar cheese. J Dairy Sci 86: 2516–2524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. David JRD, Graves RH, Carlson VR (1996) Aseptic Processing and Packaging of Food: A Food Industry Perspective. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Downes FP, Ito K (eds) (2001) Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 4th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  8. Dillon V (1998) Yeasts and moulds associated with meat and meat products. In: Davies A, Board R (eds) The Microbiology of Meat and Poultry, 1st edn. Blackie Academic and Professional, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Garcia-Lopez ML, Prieto M, Otero A (1998) The physiological attributes of Gram negative bacteria associated with spoilage of meat and meat products. In: Davies A, Board R (eds) The Microbiology of Meat and Poultry, 1st edn. Blackie Academic and Professional, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Hamasaki Y, Ayaki M, Fuchu H, Sugiyama M, Morita H (2003) Behavior of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria isolated from spoiling cooked meat products. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 3668–3671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Holzapfel W (1998) The Gram-positive bacteria associated with meat and meat products. In: Davies A, Board R (eds) The Microbiology of Meat and Poultry, 1st edn. Blackie Academic and Professional, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Kalinowski RM, Tompkin B (1999) Psychrotrophic clostridia causing spoilage in cooked meat and poultry products. J Food Prot 62:766–772Google Scholar
  13. Kinderlerer JL (1997) Chrysosporium species, potential spoilage organisms of chocolate. J Appl Microbiol 83:771–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kornacki JL, Bradley RL, Flowers RS (2001) Microbiology of butter and related products,  Chapter 5. In: Marth EH, Steele JL (eds) Applied Dairy Microbiology, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Leuchner R, Hammes WP (1999) Formation of biogenic amine in mayonnaise, herring and tuna fish salad by lactobacilli. Intl J Food Sci Nutr 50:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Metaxopoulos J, Mataragas M, Drosinos EH (2002) Microbial interaction in cooked cured meat products under vacuum or modified atmosphere at 4°C. J Appl Microbiol 93:363–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Muir DD, Banks JM (2003) Factors affecting the shelf-life of milk and milk products. In: Smit G (ed) Dairy Processing: Improving Quality, 1st edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  18. Palop, A., Marco, A., Raso, J., Sala, F, and Condon, S. 1997. Survival of heated Bacillus coagulans spores in a medium acidified with lactic or citric acid. Int J Food Microbiol, 38:25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rajmohan S, Dodd CER (2002) Enzymes from isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens involved in food spoilage. J Appl Microbiol 93:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Stanbridge LH, Davies AR (1998) The microbiology of chill-stored meat. In: Davies A, Board R (eds) The Microbiology of Meat and Poultry, 1st edn. Blackie Academic and Professional, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Steels H, James SA, Roberts IN, Stratford M (1999) Zygosaccharomyces lentus: A significant new osmophilic preservative resistant spoilage yeast, capable of growth at low temperature. J Appl Microbiol 87:520–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Stiles ME, Holzapfel WH (1997) Lactic acid bacteria of foods and their current taxonomy. Int J Food Microbiol 36:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Stratford M, Bond CJ, James SA, Roberts IN, Steels H (2002) Candida davenportii sp. Nov., a potential soft drink spoilage yeast silated from a wasp. Int J Sys Evol Microbiol 52:1369–1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Thompson, J.M., Waites, W.M. and Dodd, C.E.R. 1998. Detection of rope spoilage in bread caused by Bacillus species. J Appl Microbiol 85:481–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wolter H, Laing E, Viljoen B (2000) Isolation and identification of yeasts associated with intermediate moisture meats. Food Technol Biotechnol 38:69–75Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sara Lee CorporationDowners GroveUSA

Personalised recommendations