Advertisement

Obesity and Cancer: Epidemiology in Racial/Ethnic Minorities

  • Colleen Doyle
Chapter
Part of the Energy Balance and Cancer book series (EBAC, volume 2)

Abstract

Overweight and obesity continue to be major public health concerns in the United States and increasingly, throughout the world [1]. Obesity is the nation’s fastest rising public health problem and has become the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States, second only to tobacco use [1]. Obesity rates among US adults increased by more than 75% between 1991 and 2006, and rates doubled in children and tripled in teens over the past 20 years. While obesity rates have increased dramatically among most of the population, particular racial, ethnic, and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups have experienced disproportionate increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity over this time [2]. This chapter will explore the differences in these trends, discuss implications for cancer prevention and control, examine contributing factors and review potential strategies for positively influencing overweight and obesity trends among all population groups.

Keywords

Obesity Rate Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System African American Resident Enjoyable Physical Activity Lower Obesity Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective, World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Public Use Data Files, 2005–2006 2007. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Health StatisticsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, McDowell MA, Flegal KM (2007). Obesity Among Adults in the United States – NO Statistically Significant Change Since 2003–2004. NCHS data brief no 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health StatisticsGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mullis RM, Blair SN, Aronne LJ et al. (2004). Prevention Conference VII: Obesity, a worldwide epidemic related to heart disease and stroke: Group IV: prevention/treatment. Circulation. 110(18):e484–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Adams PF, Schoenborn CA (2006). Health behaviors of adults: United States, 2002–2004. Vital Health Stat, (230):1–140Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goel MS, McCarthy EP, Phillips RS, Wee CC (2004). Obesity among US immigrant subgroups by duration of residence. Jama, 292(23):2860–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaplan MS, Huguet N, Newsom JT, McFarland BH (2004). The association between length of residence and obesity among Hispanic immigrants. Am J Prev Med, 27(4):323–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Himmelgreen DA, Perez-Escamilla R, Martinez D et al. (2004). The longer you stay, the bigger you get: length of time and language use in the U.S. are associated with obesity in Puerto Rican women. Am J Phys Anthropol, 125(1):90–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang Y, Beydoun MA (2007). The obesity epidemic in the United States–gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev, 29:6–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. Jama, 295(13):1549–1555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baskin ML, Ard J, Franklin F, Allison DB (2005). Prevalence of obesity in the United States. Obes Rev, 6(1):5–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Flegal KM (2004). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999–2002. Jama, 291(23):2847–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    US Department of Health and Human Services: The Surgeon General’s call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity. Washington, DC US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon GeneralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, Ogden CL, Dietz WH (2006). Racial and ethnic differences in secular trends for childhood BMI, weight, and height. Obesity (Silver Spring), 14(2):301–08CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biro FM, McMahon RP, Striegel-Moore R et al. (2001). Impact of timing of pubertal maturation on growth in black and white female adolescents: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. J Pediatr, 138(5):636–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Adair LS, Gordon-Larsen P (2001). Maturational timing and overweight prevalence in US adolescent girls. Am J Public Health, 91(4):642–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang Q, Wang Y (2004). Trends in the association between obesity and socioeconomic status in U.S. adults: 1971–2000. Obes Res, 12(10):1622–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Robert SA, Reither EN (2004). A multilevel analysis of race, community disadvantage, and body mass index among adults in the US. Soc Sci Med, 59(12):2421–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gordon-Larsen P, Adair LS, Popkin BM. The relationship of ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, and overweight in US adolescents. Obes Res, 11(1):121–29Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miech RA, Kumanyika SK, Stettler N, Link BG, Phelan JC, Chang VW (2006). Trends in the association of poverty with overweight among US adolescents, 1971–2004. Jama, 295(20):2385–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang Y, Zhang Q (2006). Are American children and adolescents of low socioeconomic status at increased risk of obesity? Changes in the association between overweight and family income between 1971 and 2002. Am J Clin Nutr, 84(4):707–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Drewnowski A, Rehm CD, Solet D (2007). Disparities in obesity rates: analysis by ZIP code area. Soc Sci Med, 65(12):2458–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Levi J, Vinter S, St. Laurent R, Segal L (2008). F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies are Failing in America 2008, Trust for America’s Health, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2008). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data 2007. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. ; 2008. http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss/index.asp. Accessed August 2008
  25. 25.
    Ramsey PW, Glenn LL (2002). Obesity and health status in rural, urban, and suburban southern women. South Med J, 95(7):666–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Patterson PD, Moore CG, Probst JC, Shinogle JA (2004). Obesity and physical inactivity in rural America. J Rural Health, 20(2):151–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jackson JE, Doescher MP, Jerant AF, Hart LG (2005). A national study of obesity prevalence and trends by type of rural county. J Rural Health, 21(2):140–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ (2003). Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med, 348(17):1625–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vainio H, Bianchini F (2002). Weight Control and Physical Activity. Vol 6. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on CancerGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Caan BJ, Kwan ML, Hartzell G et al. (2008). Pre-diagnosis body mass index, post-diagnosis weight change, and prognosis among women with early stage breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control, 19(10):1319–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dignam JJ, Polite BN, Yothers G et al. (2006). Body mass index and outcomes in patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst, 98(22): 1647–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Freedland SJ, Grubb KA, Yiu SK et al. (2005). Obesity and risk of biochemical progression following radical prostatectomy at a tertiary care referral center. J Urol, 174(3):919–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Meyerhardt JA, Niedzwiecki D, Hollis D et al. (2007). Association of dietary patterns with cancer recurrence and survival in patients with stage III colon cancer. Jama, 298(7):754–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chlebowski RT, Blackburn GL, Thomson CA et al. (2006). Dietary fat reduction and breast cancer outcome: interim efficacy results from the Women’s Intervention Nutrition Study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 98(24):1767–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Holmes MD, Chen WY, Feskanich D, Kroenke CH, Colditz GA (2005). Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis. Jama, 293(20):2479–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sedjo RL, Byers T, Barrera E, Jr. et al. (2007). A midpoint assessment of the American Cancer Society challenge goal to decrease cancer incidence by 25% between 1992 and 2015. CA Cancer J Clin, 57(6):326–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    McTiernan A (2000). Associations between energy balance and body mass index and risk of breast carcinoma in women from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds in the U.S. Cancer, 88(5 Suppl):1248–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mayberry RM, Stoddard-Wright C (1992). Breast cancer risk factors among black women and white women: similarities and differences. Am J Epidemiol, 136(12):1445–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Adams-Campbell LL KK, Dunston G et al. (1996). The relationship of body mass index to reproductive factors in pre– and postmenopausal African American women with and without breast cancer. Obesity Res, 4(5):451–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cui Y, Whiteman MK, Langenberg P et al. (2002). Can obesity explain the racial difference in stage of breast cancer at diagnosis between black and white women? J Womens Health Gend Based Med, 11(6):527–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wenten M, Gilliland FD, Baumgartner K, Samet JM (2002). Associations of weight, weight change, and body mass with breast cancer risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Ann Epidemiol, 12(6):435–34Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wee CC, McCarthy EP, Davis RB, Phillips RS (2004). Obesity and breast cancer screening. J Gen Intern Med, 19(4):324–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vizcaino AP, Moreno V, Lambert R, Parkin DM (2002). Time trends incidence of both major histologic types of esophageal carcinomas in selected countries, 1973–1995. Int J Cancer, 99(6):860–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hollingsworth JM, Miller DC, Daignault S, Hollenbeck BK (2006). Rising incidence of small renal masses: a need to reassess treatment effect. J Natl Cancer Inst, 98(18):1331–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brown LM, Devesa SS (2002). Epidemiologic trends in esophageal and gastric cancer in the United States. Surg Oncol Clin N Am, 11(2):235–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S et al. (2008). Youth risk behavior surveillance–United States, 2007. MMWR Surveill Summ, 57(4):1–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Taveras EM, Berkey CS, Rifas-Shiman SL et al. (2005). Association of consumption of fried food away from home with body mass index and diet quality in older children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 116(4):e518–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schmidt M, Affenito SG, Striegel-Moore R et al. (2005). Fast-food intake and diet quality in black and white girls: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 159(7):626–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bowman SA, Vinyard BT (2004). Fast food consumption of U.S. adults: impact on energy and nutrient intakes and overweight status. J Am Coll Nutr, 23(2):163–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Block JP, Scribner RA, DeSalvo KB (2004). Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income: a geographic analysis. Am J Prev Med, 27(3):211–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stewart H, Blisard N, Bhuyan S, Nayga R (2004). The Demand for Food Away from Home: Full-Service or Fast Food? Agricultural Economic Report #829. USDA ,Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    NPD Group (2005). The NPD Group, 20th Annual Eating Patterns in America Study. Port Washington, NYNPD GroupGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sanchez-Johnsen LA, Fitzgibbon ML, Martinovich Z, Stolley MR, Dyer AR, Van Horn L (2004). Ethnic Differences in correlates of obesity between Latin-American and black Women. Obes Res, 12(4):652–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Katz ML, Gordon-Larsen P, Bentley ME, Kelsey K, Shields K, Ammerman A (2004). “Does skinny mean healthy?” Perceived ideal, current, and healthy body sizes among African-American girls and their female caregivers. Ethn Dis Autumn,14(4): 533–41Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gipson GW, Reese S, Vieweg WV et al. (2005). Body image and attitude toward obesity in an historically black university. J Natl Med Assoc, 97(2):225–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bish CL, Blanck HM, Serdula MK, Marcus M, Kohl HW3rd, Khan LK (2005). Diet and physical activity behaviors among Americans trying to lose weight: 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Obes Res, 13(3):596–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yancey A, Kumanyika S (2007). Bridging the Gap: Understanding the Structure of Social Inequities in Childhood Obesity. Am J Prev Med, 33(4, Supplement 1):S172–S174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (2004) The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity. Menlo Park, CAGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    National Center for Health Statistics (2004). Health, United States, 2004 With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans Hyattsville, MDGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Smiciklas-Wright H, Mitchell DC, Mickle SJ, Goldman JD, Cook A (2003). Foods commonly eaten in the United States, 1989–1991 and 1994–1996: are portion sizes changing? J Am Diet Assoc, 103(1):41–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Young LR, Nestle M (2002). The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health, 92(2):246–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nestle M (2003). Increasing portion sizes in American diets: more calories, more obesity. J Am Diet Assoc, 103(1):39–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dong L, Block G, Mandel S (2004). Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 1(1):4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kruger J, Galuska DA, Serdula MK, Kohl HW, 3rd (2005). Physical activity profiles of U.S. adults trying to lose weight: NHIS 1998. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 37(3):364–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Paeratakul S, Ferdinand DP, Champagne CM, Ryan DH, Bray GA (2003). Fast-food consumption among US adults and children: dietary and nutrient intake profile. J Am Diet Assoc, 103(10):1332–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Black JB, Chen D (2003). Neighborhood-based differences in physical activity: an environment scale evaluation. Am J Public Health, 93(9):1552–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Frank LD, Andresen MA, Schmid TL (2004). Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. Am J Prev Med, 27(2):87–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Giles-Corti B, Macintyre S, Clarkson JP, Pikora T, Donovan RJ (2003). Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity in Perth, Australia. Am J Health Promot, 18(1):93–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Morland K, Diez Roux AV, Wing S (2006). Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Prev Med, 30(4):333–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Morland K, Wing S, Diez Roux A, Poole C (2002). Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores and food service places. Am J Prev Med, 22(1):23–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Powell LM, Slater S, Mirtcheva D, Bao Y, Chaloupka FJ (2007). Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States. Prev Med, 44(3):189–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, James SA, Bao S, Wilson ML (2005). Neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood poverty, and the spatial accessibility of supermarkets in metropolitan Detroit. Am J Public Health, 95(4):660–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Horowitz CR, Colson KA, Hebert PL, Lancaster K (2004). Barriers to buying healthy foods for people with diabetes: evidence of environmental disparities. Am J Public Health, 94(9):1549–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wechsler H, Basch CE, Zybert P, Lantigua R, Shea S (1995). The availability of low-fat milk in an inner-city Latino community: implications for nutrition education. Am J Public Health, 85(12):1690–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sturm R, Datar A (2005). Body mass index in elementary school children, metropolitan area food prices and food outlet density. Public Health, 119(12):1059–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lewis LB, Sloane DC, Nascimento LM et al. (2005). African Americans’ access to healthy food options in South Los Angeles restaurants. Am J Public Health, 95(4):668–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Andrieu E, Darmon N, Drewnowski A (2006). Low-cost diets: more energy, fewer nutrients. Eur J Clin Nutr, 60(3):434–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Monsivais P, Drewnowski A (2007). The rising cost of low-energy-density foods. J Am Diet Assoc, 107(12):2071–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Darmon N, Drewnowski A (2008). Does social class predict diet quality? Am J Clin Nutr, 87(5):1107–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tirodkar MA, Jain A (2003). Food messages on African American television shows. Am J Public Health, 93(3):439–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Borzekowski DL, Robinson TN (2001). The 30-second effect: an experiment revealing the impact of television commercials on food preferences of preschoolers. J Am Diet Assoc, 101(1):42–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    A Kaiser Family Foundation Report (2007). Food for Thought: Television Food Advertising to Children in the United States. Menlo Park, CAGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Duncan MJ, Spence JC, Mummery WK (2005). Perceived environment and physical activity: a meta-analysis of selected environmental characteristics. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 2:11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    King WC, Belle SH, Brach JS, Simkin-Silverman LR, Soska T, Kriska AM (2005). Objective measures of neighborhood environment and physical activity in older women. Am J Prev Med, 28(5):461–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Powell L, S S, FJ C (2004). The relationship between com¬munity physical activity settings and race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Evidence-Based Prev Med, 1:135–144Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson MC, Page P, Popkin BM (2006). Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity. Pediatrics, 117(2):417–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Estabrooks PA, Lee RE, Gyurcsik NC (2003). Resources for physical activity participation: does availability and accessibility differ by neighborhood socioeconomic status? Ann Behav Med, 25(2):100–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Casagrande SS, Whitt-Glover MC, Lancaster KJ, Odoms-Young AM, Gary TL (2009). Built environment and health behaviors among African Americans: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med, 36(2):174–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sallis JF, Glanz K (2004). The role of built environments in physical activity, eating, and obesity in childhood. Future Child, 16(1):89–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Franzini L, Elliott MN, Cuccaro P et al. (2009). Influences of physical and social neighborhood environments on children’s physical activity and obesity. Am J Public Health, 99(2):271–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Smoking and Health (1990). A National Status Report. A Report to Congress Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Office on Smoking and Health United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General 1990–2002 (February 1990)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Flegal KM (2008). High body mass index for age among US children and adolescents, 2003–2006. JAMA, 299(20):2401–405Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nutrition and Physical ActivityAmerican Cancer SocietyOklahoma CityUSA

Personalised recommendations