Advertisement

Obesity and Cancer Epidemiology

  • Rachel Ballard-Barbash
  • David Berrigan
  • Nancy Potischman
  • Emily Dowling
Chapter
Part of the Energy Balance and Cancer book series (EBAC, volume 2)

Abstract

Evidence has expanded extensively in the past two decades on the association between body mass index (BMI) and other measures of body composition and weight gain with many cancers. Evidence is convincing for obesity as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, colon and rectum, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, kidney, and thyroid and as probable for cancer of the gallbladder. Although not yet definitive, research is expanding rapidly for a number of other rare cancers and suggests associations for obesity and cancers of the ovary and liver and for several types of lymphoid and hematological malignancies. Associations between obesity and lung and head and neck cancers are confounded by tobacco use. An important shift in research has been the effort to examine the combined effect of overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Generally, studies that have examined these combinations of factors have found much greater increases in risk among people who have these adverse health profiles. A number of mechanisms are being explored related to obesity and cancer, including changes in sex hormones, insulin-related growth factors, inflammation, immune function, and other growth factors. Data on racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic whites and Asians are limited for most cancers, but suggest there may be some differences in BMI and cancer associations in some subgroups. The continued global epidemics of obesity and diabetes mellitus are likely to contribute to global increases in a number of obesity-related cancers.

Keywords

Body Mass Index Cancer Risk Renal Cell Carcinoma Bariatric Surgery Waist Circumference 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Special thanks to Anne Rogers for editing the manuscript and Penny Randall-Levy for preparing the bibliography.

References

  1. 1.
    Adams KF, Leitzmann MF, Albanes D et al. (2008). Body size and renal cell cancer incidence in a large US cohort study. Am J Epidemiol, 168(3):268–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams TD, GRess RE, Smith SC et al. (2007). Long-term mortality after gastric bypass surgery. N Engl J Med, 357(8):753–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adams TD, Stroug AM, Gress RE, et al. (2009). Cancer incidence and mortality after gastric bypass surgery. Obesity, 17(4):796–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahlgren M, Melbye M, Wohlfahrt J, Sorensen TI (2006). Growth patterns and the risk of breast cancer in women. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 16 Suppl 2:569–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ahlgren M, Wohlfahrt J, Olsen LW, Sorensen TI, Melbye M (2007). Birth weight and risk of cancer. Cancer, 110(2):412–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alexander DD, Mink PJ, Adami HO et al. (2007). Multiple myeloma: a review of the epidemiologic literature. Int J Cancer, 120 Suppl 12:40–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    American Cancer Society (2008). Cancer facts & figures 2008. American Cancer Society, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Amling CL (2005). Relationship between obesity and prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol, 15(3):167–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anderson JP, Ross JA, Folsom AR (2004). Anthropometric variables, physical activity, and incidence of ovarian cancer: The Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer, 100(7):1515–1521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ballard-Barbash R, Friedenreich C, Slattery M, Thune I (2006). Obesity and body composition. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF, Jr. (eds.), Cancer epidemiology and prevention, 3rd edn, pp. 422–448. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baumgartner RN (1997). Body composition and anthropometry. In: Gary PJ, Owen G, Eldridge TO (eds.), The New Mexico Aging Process Study: 1980–1997., pp. 88–145. University of New Mexico, New Mexico.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Benichou J, Chow WH, McLaughlin JK, Mandel JS, Fraumeni JF, Jr. (1998). Population attributable risk of renal cell cancer in Minnesota. Am J Epidemiol, 148(5):424–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Beral V, Bull D, Reeves G (2005). Endometrial cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet, 365(9470):1543–1551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berrington de Gonzalez A, Spencer EA, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB et al. (2006). Anthropometry, physical activity, and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15(5):879–885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berrington de Gonzalez A, Sweetland S, Spencer E (2003). A meta-analysis of obesity and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Br J Cancer, 89(3):519–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bjorge T, Tretli S, Engeland A (2004). Relation of height and body mass index to renal cell carcinoma in two million Norwegian men and women. Am J Epidemiol, 160(12):1168–1176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boyd NF, Martin LJ, Sun L et al. (2006). Body size, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15(11):2086–2092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brawley OW, Jani AB, Master V (2007). Prostate cancer and race. Curr Probl Cancer, 31(3):211–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brennan P, van der Hel O, Moore LE et al. (2008). Tobacco smoking, body mass index, hypertension, and kidney cancer risk in central and eastern Europe. Br J Cancer, 99(11):1912–1915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buchner DA, Burrage LC, Hill AE et al. (2008). Resistance to diet-induced obesity in mice with a single substituted chromosome. Physiol Genomics, 35(1):116–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Buschemeyer WC, III, Freedland SJ (2007). Obesity and prostate cancer: epidemiology and clinical implications. Eur Urol, 52(2):331–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Caldwell SH, Crespo DM, Kang HS, Al-Osaimi AM (2004). Obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology, 127(5 Suppl 1):S97–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Calle EE, Kaaks R (2004). Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer, 4(8):579–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Calle EE, Thun MJ (2004). Obesity and cancer. Oncogene, 23(38):6365–6378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chang SC, Ziegler RG, Dunn B et al. (2006). Association of energy intake and energy balance with postmenopausal breast cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15(2):334–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chow WH, Blot WJ, Vaughan TL et al. (1998). Body mass index and risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. J Natl Cancer Inst, 90(2):150–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chow WH, Devesa SS, Warren JL, Fraumeni JF, Jr. (1999). Rising incidence of renal cell cancer in the United States. JAMA, 281(17):1628–1631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chow WH, Gridley G, Fraumeni JF, Jr., Jarvholm B (2000). Obesity, hypertension, and the risk of kidney cancer in men. N Engl J Med, 343(18):1305–1311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Christou NV, Lieberman M, Sampalis F, Sampalis JS (2008). Bariatric surgery reduces cancer risk in morbidly obese patients. Surv Obes Relat Dis, 4(6):691–5.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ciampolillo A, DeTullio C, Giorgino F (2005). The IGF-I/IGF-I receptor pathway: Implications in the pathophysiology of thyroid cancer. Curr Med Chem, 12(24):2881–2891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dai Z, Xu YC, Niu L (2007). Obesity and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. World J Gastroenterol, 13(31):4199–4206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dal Maso L, Franceschi S, Negri E et al. (2002). Body size indices at different ages and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Eur J Cancer, 38(13):1769–1774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Davies L, Welch HG (2006). Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States, 1973–2002. JAMA, 295(18):2164–2167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Devesa SS, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF, Jr. (1998). Changing patterns in the incidence of esophageal and gastric carcinoma in the United States. Cancer, 83(10):2049–2053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dirx MJ, Voorrips LE, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA (2001). Baseline recreational physical activity, history of sports participation, and postmenopausal breast carcinoma risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Cancer, 92(6):1638–1649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Edwards BK, Brown ML, Wingo PA et al. (2005). Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2002, featuring population-based trends in cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst, 97(19):1407–1427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Engeland A, Tretli S, Bjorge T (2003). Height, body mass index, and ovarian cancer: a follow-up of 1.1 million Norwegian women. J Natl Cancer Inst, 95(16):1244–1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Engeland A, Tretli S, Bjorge T (2004). Height and body mass index in relation to esophageal cancer; 23-year follow-up of two million Norwegian men and women. Cancer Causes Control, 15(8):837–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Etzioni R, Penson DF, Legler JM et al. (2002). Overdiagnosis due to prostate-specific antigen screening: lessons from U.S. prostate cancer incidence trends. J Natl Cancer Inst 94(13):981–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fairfield KM, Willett WC, Rosner BA, Manson JE, Speizer FE, Hankinson SE (2002). Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol, 100(2):288–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Frankel S, Smith GD, Donovan J, Neal D (2003). Screening for prostate cancer. Lancet, 361(9363):1122–1128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Freedland SJ, Platz EA (2007). Obesity and prostate cancer: making sense out of apparently conflicting data. Epidemiol Rev, 29:88–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Friberg E, Mantzoros CS, Wolk A (2007). Diabetes and risk of endometrial cancer: a population-based prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 16(2):276–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Friberg E, Orsini N, Mantzoros CS, Wolk A (2007). Diabetes mellitus and risk of endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis. Diabetologia, 50(7):1365–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Friedenreich C, Cust A, Lahmann PH et al. (2007). Anthropometric factors and risk of endometrial cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Causes Control, 18(4):399–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gago-Dominguez M, Castelao JE (2006). Lipid peroxidation and renal cell carcinoma: further supportive evidence and new mechanistic insights. Free Radic Biol Med, 40(4):721–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Giovannucci E (2003). Diet, body weight, and colorectal cancer: a summary of the epidemiologic evidence. J Womens Health (Larchmt ), 12(2):173–182.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Giovannucci E, Michaud D (2007). The role of obesity and related metabolic disturbances in cancers of the colon, prostate, and pancreas. Gastroenterology, 132(6):2208–2225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC (1997). Height, body weight, and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 6(8):557–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gong Z, Neuhouser ML, Goodman PJ et al. (2006). Obesity, diabetes, and risk of prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15(10):1977–1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Greenland S, Gago-Dominguez M, Castelao JE (2004). The value of risk-factor (“black-box”) epidemiology. Epidemiology, 15(5):529–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Greer JB, Modugno F, Ness RB, Allen GO (2006). Anthropometry and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer, 106(10):2247–2257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gunnell D, Berney L, Holland P et al. (2000). How accurately are height, weight and leg length reported by the elderly, and how closely are they related to measurements recorded in childhood? Int J Epidemiol, 29(3):456–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gunnell D, Okasha M, Smith GD, Oliver SE, Sandhu J, Holly JM (2001). Height, leg length, and cancer risk: a systematic review. Epidemiol Rev, 23(2):313–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hard GC (1998). Recent developments in the investigation of thyroid regulation and thyroid carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect, 106(8):427–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hill AE, Lander ES, Nadeau JH (2006). Chromosome substitution strains: a new way to study genetically complex traits. Methods Mol Med, 128:153–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hoyo C, Berchuck A, Halabi S et al. (2005). Anthropometric measurements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in African-American and White women. Cancer Causes Control, 16(8):955–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Huffman DM, Johnson MS, Watts A, Elgavish A, Eltoum IA, Nagy TR (2007). Cancer progression in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate mouse is related to energy balance, body mass, and body composition, but not food intake. Cancer Res, 67(1):417–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Huffman DM, Moellering DR, Grizzle WE, Stockard CR, Johnson MS, Nagy TR (2008). Effect of exercise and calorie restriction on biomarkers of aging in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 294(5):R1618–R1627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hursting SD, Lavigne JA, Berrigan D, Perkins SN, Barrett JC (2003). Calorie restriction, aging, and cancer prevention: mechanisms of action and applicability to humans. Annu Rev Med, 54:131–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ilhan G, Karakus S, Andic N (2006). Risk factors and primary prevention of acute leukemia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 7(4):515–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group (1986). International Agency for Research on Cancer: tobacco smoking. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans, vol. 38. IARC Press, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group (1988). International Agency for Research on Cancer: alcohol drinking. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans, vol. 44. IARC Press, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group (2002). IARC Working Group on the evaluation of cancer-preventive strategies. IARC handbooks of cancer prevention, vol. 6, p. 315. Weight control and physical activity. IARC Press, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jacobs ET, Ahnen DJ, Ashbeck EL et al. (2009). Association between body mass index and colorectal neoplasia at follow-up colonoscopy: a pooling study. Am J Epidemiol, 169(6):657–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jasik CB, Lustig RH (2008). Adolescent obesity and puberty: the “perfect storm”. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1135:265–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Key TJ, Allen NE, Verkasalo PK, Banks E (2001). Energy balance and cancer: the role of sex hormones. Proc Nutr Soc, 60(1):81–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kipping RR, Jago R, Lawlor DA (2008). Obesity in children. Part 1: Epidemiology, measurement, risk factors, and screening. BMJ, 337:a1824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kristal AR, Arnold KB, Schenk JM et al. (2008). Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. Am J Epidemiol, 167(8):925–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kritchevsky D (2002). Caloric restriction and experimental carcinogenesis. Hybrid Hybridomics, 21(2):147–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kubo A, Corley DA (2006). Body mass index and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus or gastric cardia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15(5):872–878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kuczmarski MF, Kuczmarski RJ, Najjar M (2001). Effects of age on validity of self-reported height, weight, and body mass index: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. J Am Diet Assoc, 101(1):28–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Lindgren A, Nyren O (1999). Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux as a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med, 340(11):825–831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lahmann PH, Lissner L, Gullberg B, Olsson H, Berglund G (2003). A prospective study of adiposity and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study. Int J Cancer, 103(2):246–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Larsson SC, Friberg E, Wolk A (2007). Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: A prospective study of Swedish women. Int J Cancer, 120(5):1103–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A (2007). Body mass index and pancreatic cancer risk: A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Cancer, 120(9):1993–1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Larsson SC, Wolk A (2007). Body mass index and risk of multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer, 121(11):2512–2516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Larsson SC, Wolk A (2007). Obesity and colon and rectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr, 86(3):556–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Larsson SC, Wolk A (2007). Obesity and risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer, 121(7):1564–1570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Larsson SC, Wolk A (2007). Obesity and the risk of gallbladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer, 96(9):1457–1461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Larsson SC, Wolk A (2007). Overweight, obesity and risk of liver cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Br J Cancer, 97(7):1005–1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Larsson SC, Wolk A (2008). Overweight and obesity and incidence of leukemia: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Int J Cancer, 122(6):1418–1421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Mi MP (1992). Obesity in youth and middle age and risk of colorectal cancer in men. Cancer Causes Control, 3(4):349–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lee IM, Oguma Y (2006). Physical activity. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF, Jr. (eds.), Cancer epidemiology and prevention, 3rd edn, pp. 449–467. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lee SY, Gallagher D (2008). Assessment methods in human body composition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 11(5):566–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Levi F, Ferlay J, Galeone C et al. (2008). The changing pattern of kidney cancer incidence and mortality in Europe. BJU Int, 101(8):949–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Levi F, Lucchini F, Negri E, La VC (2004). Declining mortality from kidney cancer in Europe. Ann Oncol, 15(7):1130–1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lindblad M, Rodriguez LA, Lagergren J (2005). Body mass, tobacco and alcohol and risk of esophageal, gastric cardia, and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma among men and women in a nested case-control study. Cancer Causes Control, 16(3):285–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lipworth L, Tarone RE, McLaughlin JK (2006). The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma. J Urol, 176(6 Pt 1):2353–2358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R (1988). Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lowell BB, Flier JS (1997). Brown adipose tissue, beta 3-adrenergic receptors, and obesity. Annu Rev Med, 48:307–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P (2002). Epidemiologic and etiologic factors of pancreatic cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am, 16(1):1–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Luo J, Margolis KL, Adami HO, LaCroix A, Ye W (2008). Obesity and risk of pancreatic cancer among postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative (United States). Br J Cancer, 99(3):527–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    MacInnis RJ, English DR (2006). Body size and composition and prostate cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Cancer Causes Control, 17(8):989–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mack WJ, Preston-Martin S, Dal ML et al. (2003). A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer: cigarette smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea. Cancer Causes Control, 14(8):773–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Malin A, Matthews CE, Shu XO et al. (2005). Energy balance and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14(6):1496–1501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Maskarinec G, Erber E, Gill J, Cozen W, Kolonel LN (2008). Overweight and obesity at different times in life as risk factors for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: the multiethnic cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17(1):196–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mathers CD, Shibuya K, Boschi-Pinto C, Lopez AD, Murray CJ (2002). Global and regional estimates of cancer mortality and incidence by site: I. Application of regional cancer survival model to estimate cancer mortality distribution by site. BMC Cancer, 2:36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    McTiernan A (2006). Cancer prevention and management through exercise and weight control, p. 608. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Modesitt SC, van Nagell J, Jr. (2005). The impact of obesity on the incidence and treatment of gynecologic cancers: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv, 60(10):683–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Moghaddam AA, Woodward M, Huxley R (2007). Obesity and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of 31 studies with 70,000 events. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 16(12):2533–2547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Moore LE, Wilson RT, Campleman SL (2005). Lifestyle factors, exposures, genetic susceptibility, and renal cell cancer risk: a review. Cancer Invest, 23(3):240–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Moore T, Beltran L, Carbajal S et al. (2008). Dietary energy balance modulates signaling through the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways in multiple epithelial tissues. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa), 1(1):65–76.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Must A, Dietz WH, Willett WC (1993). Remote recall of childhood height, weight and body build by elderly subjects. Am J Epidemiol, 138(1):56–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nilsen TI, Romundstad PR, Troisi R, Potischman N, Vatten LJ (2005) Birth size and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective population based study. Gut, 54(12):1728–1732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Nunez NP, Carpenter CL, Perkins SN et al. (2007). Extreme obesity reduces bone mineral density: complementary evidence from mice and women. Obesity (Silver Spring), 15(8):1980–1987.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nunez NP, Oh WJ, Rozenberg J et al. (2006). Accelerated tumor formation in a fatless mouse with type 2 diabetes and inflammation. Cancer Res, 66(10):5469–5476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Oeffinger KC (2008). Are survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at increased risk of cardiovascular disease? Pediatr Blood Cancer, 50(2 Suppl):462–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Oh SW, Yoon YS, Shin SA (2005). Effects of excess weight on cancer incidences depending on cancer sites and histologic findings among men: Korea National Health Insurance Corporation Study. J Clin Oncol, 23(21):4742–4754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ohki T, Tateishi R, Sato T et al. (2008). Obesity is an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma development in chronic hepatitis C patients. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 6(4):459–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Olsen CM, Green AC, Whiteman DC, Sadeghi S, Kolahdooz F, Webb PM (2007). Obesity and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer, 43(4):690–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Olsen CM, Nagle CM, Whiteman DC, Purdie DM, Green AC, Webb PM (2008). Body size and risk of epithelial ovarian and related cancers: a population-based case-control study. Int J Cancer, 123(2):450–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Olson JE, Yang P, Schmitz K, Vierkant RA, Cerhan JR, Sellers TA (2002). Differential association of body mass index and fat distribution with three major histologic types of lung cancer: evidence from a cohort of older women. Am J Epidemiol, 156(7):606–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Park SK, Kang D, McGlynn KA et al. (2008). Intrauterine environments and breast cancer risk: meta-analysis and systematic review. Breast Cancer Res, 10(1):R8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P (2005). Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 55(2):74–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Pascual D, Borque A (2008). Epidemiology of kidney cancer. Adv Urol, :782381.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Patel AV, Feigelson HS, Talbot JT et al. (2008). The role of body weight in the relationship between physical activity and endometrial cancer: results from a large cohort of US women. Int J Cancer, 123(8):1877–1882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Patel AV, Rodriguez C, Bernstein L, Chao A, Thun MJ, Calle EE (2005). Obesity, recreational physical activity, and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large U.S. Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14(2):459–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Pera M, Manterola C, Vidal O, Grande L (2005). Epidemiology of esophageal adenocarcinoma. J Surg Oncol, 92(3):151–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Phipps AI, Malone KE, Porter PL, Daling JR, Li CI (2008). Body size and risk of luminal, HER2-overexpressing, and triple-negative breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17(8):2078–2086.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Pienta KJ, bate-Shen C, Agus DB et al. (2008). The current state of preclinical prostate cancer animal models. Prostate, 68(6):629–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Pischon T, Lahmann PH, Boeing H et al. (2006). Body size and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer, 118(3):728–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Potosky AL, Miller BA, Albertsen PC, Kramer BS (1995). The role of increasing detection in the rising incidence of prostate cancer. JAMA, 273(7):548–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Presti JC, Jr. (2005). Obesity and prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol, 15(1):13–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Purdie DM, Green AC (2001). Epidemiology of endometrial cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol, 15(3):341–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Qian Y, Fan JG (2005). Obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int, 4(2):173–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Randi G, Franceschi S, La VC (2006). Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors. Int J Cancer, 118(7):1591–1602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Rapp K, Klenk J, Ulmer H et al. (2008). Weight change and cancer risk in a cohort of more than 65,000 adults in Austria. Ann Oncol, 19(4):641–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Reeves GK, Pirie K, Beral V, Green J, Spencer E, Bull D (2007). Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. BMJ, 335(7630):1134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, Heller RF, Zwahlen M (2008). Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet, 371(9612):569–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ries LAG, Harkins D, Krapcho M, Mariotto A, Miller BA, Feuer EJ, Clegg L, Eisner MP, Horner MJ, Howlader N, Hayat M, Hankey BF, Edwards BK, (eds.), (2006). SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2003, Bethesda, MD National Cancer Institute. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2003/.
  132. 132.
    Ries LAG, Melbert D, Krapcho M, Stinchcomb DG, Howlader N, Horner MJ, Mariotto A, Miller BA, Feuer EJ, Altekruse SF, Lewis DR, Clegg L, Eisner MP, Reichman M, Edwards BK (2008). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2005 http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2005/. Accessed: 23 Apr 2008.
  133. 133.
    Risch HA (1998). Hormonal etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer, with a hypothesis concerning the role of androgens and progesterone. J Natl Cancer Inst, 90(23):1774–1786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Robinson WR, Poole C, Godley PA (2008). Systematic review of prostate cancer‘s association with body size in childhood and young adulthood. Cancer Causes Control, 19(8):793–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Roddam AW, Allen NE, Appleby P et al. (2008). Insulin-like growth factors, their binding proteins, and prostate cancer risk: analysis of individual patient data from 12 prospective studies. Ann Intern Med, 149(7):461–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rodriguez C, Freedland SJ, Deka A et al. (2007). Body mass index, weight change, and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 16(1):63–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Rogers CJ, Berrigan D, Zaharoff DA et al. (2008). Energy restriction and exercise differentially enhance components of systemic and mucosal immunity in mice. J Nutr, 138(1):115–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Roseboom TJ, van der Meulen JH, Ravelli AC, Osmond C, Barker DJ, Bleker OP (2001). Effects of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine on adult disease in later life: an overview. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 185(1–2):93–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ross JA, Parker E, Blair CK, Cerhan JR, Folsom AR (2004). Body mass index and risk of leukemia in older women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 13(11 Pt 1):1810–1813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Rossing MA, Remler R, Voigt LF, Wicklund KG, Daling JR (2001). Recreational physical activity and risk of papillary thyroid cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control, 12(10):881–885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Roth GS, Ingram DK, Lane MA (2001). Caloric restriction in primates and relevance to humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 928:305–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Rowland ML (1990). Self-reported weight and height. Am J Clin Nutr, 52(6): 1125–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ruder EH, Dorgan JF, Kranz S, Kris-Etherton PM, Hartman TJ (2008). Examining breast cancer growth and lifestyle risk factors: early life, childhood, and adolescence. Clin Breast Cancer, 8(4):334–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ryan AM, Rowley SP, Fitzgerald AP, Ravi N, Reynolds JV (2006). Adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia: male preponderance in association with obesity. Eur J Cancer, 42(8):1151–1158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Samaras TT, Elrick H, Storms LH (2003). Birthweight, rapid growth, cancer, and longevity: a review. J Natl Med Assoc, 95(12):1170–1183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sandhu MS, Luben R, Day NE, Khaw KT (2002). Self-reported birth weight and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 11(9):935–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Schouten LJ, Rivera C, Hunter DJ et al. (2008). Height, body mass index, and ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17(4):902–912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Shaffer EA (2006). Gallstone disease: Epidemiology of gallbladder stone disease. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol, 20(6):981–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Shin A, Matthews CE, Shu XO et al. (2009). Joint effects of body size, energy intake, and physical activity on breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 113(1):153–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Silva Idos S, De Stavola B, McCormack V (2008). Birth size and breast cancer risk: re-analysis of individual participant data from 32 studies. PLoS Med, 5(9):e193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Silvera SA, Jain M, Howe GR, Miller AB, Rohan TE (2006). Energy balance and breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 97(1):97–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Sjostrom L, Narbro K, Sjostrom D, et al. (2007). Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. New Eng J Med, 357(8): 741–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Skibola CF (2007). Obesity, diet and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 16(3):392–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Skolarus TA, Wolin KY, Grubb RL, III (2007). The effect of body mass index on PSA levels and the development, screening and treatment of prostate cancer. Nat Clin Pract Urol, 4(11):605–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Smith M, Zhou M, Whitlock G et al. (2008). Esophageal cancer and body mass index: results from a prospective study of 220,000 men in China and a meta-analysis of published studies. Int J Cancer, 122(7):1604–1610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sorosky JI (2008). Endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol, 111(2 Pt 1):436–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Spindler SR (2005). Rapid and reversible induction of the longevity, anticancer and genomic effects of caloric restriction. Mech Ageing Dev, 126(9):960–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Stevens J, Keil JE, Waid LR, Gazes PC (1990). Accuracy of current, 4-year, and 28-year self-reported body weight in an elderly population. Am J Epidemiol, 132(6):1156–1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Tannen RL, Weiner MG, Xie D, Barnhart K (2007a). A simulation using data from a primary care practice database closely replicated the women‘s health initiative trial. J Clin Epidemiol, 60(7):686–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Tannen RL, Weiner MG, Xie D, Barnhart K (2007b). Estrogen affects post-menopausal women differently than estrogen plus progestin replacement therapy. Hum Reprod, 22(6):1769–1777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Tran GD, Sun XD, Abnet CC et al. (2005). Prospective study of risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers in the Linxian general population trial cohort in China. Int J Cancer, 113(3):456–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Trivers KF, Sabatino SA, Stewart SL (2008). Trends in esophageal cancer incidence by histology, United States, 1998–2003. Int J Cancer, 123(6):1422–1428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    van den Brandt PA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS et al. (2000). Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight, and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol, 152(6):514–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Velie EM, Nechuta S, Osuch JR (2005). Lifetime reproductive and anthropometric risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Breast Dis, 24:17–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Virtue S, Vidal-Puig A (2008) It’s not how fat you are, it‘s what you do with it that counts. PLoS Biol, 6(9):e237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Weindruch R, Walford RL (1988). The retardation of aging and disease by dietary restriction, p. 436. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    WHO Consultation on Obesity (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. World Health Organization, Report of a WHO consultation, WHO technical reports series, no. 894. Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    WHO Expert Committee (1995). Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. World Health Organization, Report of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO Technical Reports Series, No. 854. Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Willett EV, Morton LM, Hartge P et al. (2008). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and obesity: a pooled analysis from the InterLymph Consortium. Int J Cancer, 122(9):2062–2070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Wolin KY, Colditz GA (2008). Can weight loss prevent cancer? Br J Cancer, 99(7):995–999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Woodrow G (2009). Body composition analysis techniques in the aged adult: indications and limitations. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 12(1):8–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    World Health Organization (2008). WHO global infobase: data for saving lives http://www.who.int/infobase/comparestart.aspx. Accessed: 10 Feb 2009.
  174. 174.
    Wright ME, Chang SC, Schatzkin A et al. (2007). Prospective study of adiposity and weight change in relation to prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer, 109(4):675–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Wu X, Chen VW, Ruiz B, Andrews P, Su LJ, Correa P (2006). Incidence of esophageal and gastric carcinomas among American Asians/Pacific Islanders, whites, and blacks: subsite and histology differences. Cancer, 106(3):683–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Xing M (2008). Recent advances in molecular biology of thyroid cancer and their clinical implications. Otolaryngol Clin North Am, 41(6):1135–1146, ix.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Zheng SL, Sun J, Wiklund F et al. (2008). Cumulative association of five genetic variants with prostate cancer. N Engl J Med, 358(9):910–919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Zuccolo L, Harris R, Gunnell D et al. (2008). Height and prostate cancer risk: a large nested case-control study (ProtecT) and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17(9):2325–2336.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachel Ballard-Barbash
    • 1
  • David Berrigan
    • 2
  • Nancy Potischman
    • 1
  • Emily Dowling
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population SciencesNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Cancer Control and Population SciencesNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations