Advertisement

Intra-uterine Growth Restriction in Developing Countries: Impact on Child Mental Development and Behavior

  • Susan P. Walker
  • Susan M. Chang
Chapter

Abstract

Infants born low birth weight at term are estimated to comprise 11% of births in developing countries. These infants have experienced intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) indicating constraints in the supply of nutrients to the fetus during a critical period for brain development. Several studies have examined the association of term low weight with development in infancy and early childhood and have shown associations with motor and mental development and behavior. There are fewer studies from developing countries of birth weight and ability later in childhood or adolescence and findings are less consistent. Follow-up studies in Guatemala and Brazil showed few cognitive differences compared with normal birth weight infants; however, in a large Taiwan study, adolescents born term low birth weight had poorer academic achievement than those who were normal birth weight. Associations with behavior problems have also been reported in some studies but not others. The evidence to date suggests that term low birth weight infants are at risk for poor development but more information is needed on longer term outcomes. There have been few intervention studies aimed at improving the development of term low birth weight infants in developing countries. Evaluations of interventions feasible in resource-poor settings would contribute to reducing the developmental disadvantages associated with term low birth weight.

Keywords

Birth Weight Mental Development Ponderal Index Normal Birth Weight Infant Lower Developmental Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ABW

Appropriate birth weight

API

Appropriate ponderal index

DQ

Developmental quotient

IQ

Intelligence quotient

IUGR

Intra-uterine growth restriction

LBW

Low birth weight

LBW-T

Term low birth weight

LPI

Low ponderal index

NBW

Normal birth weight

SES

Socioeconomic status

SGA

Small for gestational age

References

  1. Adair LS, Pollitt E. Outcome of maternal nutritional supplementation: a comprehensive review of the Bacon Chow study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;41:948–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashworth A, Morris SS, Lira PI, Grantham-McGregor SM. Zinc supplementation, mental development and behaviour in low birth weight term infants in northeast Brazil. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52:223–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Black MM, Sazawal S, Black RE, Khosla S, Kumar J, Menon V. Cognitive and motor development among small-for-gestational-age infants: impact of zinc supplementation, birth weight, and caregiving practices. Pediatrics. 2004;113:1297–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheung YB, Yip PS, Karlberg JP. Fetal growth, early postnatal growth and motor development in Pakistani infants. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30:66–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Onis M, Blossner M, Villar J. Levels and patterns of intrauterine growth retardation in developing countries. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52:S5–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Eickmann SH, Lira PI, Lima MC. Mental and motor development at 24 months of full-term low birthweight infants. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2002;60:748–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Emond AM, Lira PI, Lima MC, Grantham-McGregor SM, Ashworth A. Development and behaviour of low-birthweight term infants at 8 years in northeast Brazil: a longitudinal study. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95:1249–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gale CR, Martyn CN. Birth weight and later risk of depression in a national birth cohort. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;184:28–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gardner JM, Walker SP, Powell CA, Grantham-McGregor S. A randomized controlled trial of a home-visiting intervention on cognition and behavior in term low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2003;143:634–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goldenberg RL, Dubard MB, Cliver SP, Nelson KG, Blankson K, Ramey SL, Herman A. Pregnancy outcome and intelligence at age five years. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;175:1511–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gorman KS, Pollitt E. Relationship between weight and body proportionality at birth, growth during the first year of life, and cognitive development at 36, 48, and 60 months. Infant Behav Dev. 1992;15:279–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grantham-McGregor SM, Lira PI, Ashworth A, Morris SS, Assuncao AM. The development of low birth weight term infants and the effects of the environment in northeast Brazil. J Pediatr. 1998;132:661–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Indredavik MS, Vik T, Heyerdahl S, Kulseng S, Brubakk AM. Psychiatric symptoms in low birth weight adolescents, assessed by screening questionnaires. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005;14:226–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kuklina EV, Ramakrishnan U, Stein AD, Barnhart HH, Martorell R. Early childhood growth and development in rural Guatemala. Early Hum Dev. 2006;82:425–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu X, Sun Z, Neiderhiser JM, Uchiyama M, Okawa M. Low birth weight, developmental milestones, and behavioral problems in Chinese children and adolescents. Psychiatry Res. 2001;101:115–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lundgren EM, Cnattingius S, Jonsson B, Tuvemo T. Intellectual and psychological performance in males born small for gestational age with and without catch-up growth. Pediatr Res. 2001;50:91–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Markestad T, Vik T, Ahlsten G, Gebre-Medhin M, Skjareven R, Jacobsen G, Hoffman HJ, Bakketeig LS. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants born at term: growth and development during the first year of life. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl. 1997;165:93–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Nair MKC, Chacko DS, Paul MK, Nair L, George B, Kumar BS. Low birth weight babies – outcome at 13 years. Indian Pediatr. 2009;46:S71–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Nelson KG, Goldenberg RL, Hoffman HJ, Cliver SP. Growth and development during the first year in a cohort of low income term-born American children. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl. 1997;165:87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Paz I, Laor A, Gale R, Harlap S, Stevenson DK, Seidman DS. Term infants with fetal growth restriction are not at increased risk for low intelligence scores at age 17 years. J Pediatr. 2001;138:87–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pollitt E, Gorman KS, Metallinos-Katsaras E. Long-term developmental consequences of intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation in rural Guatemala. In: Suci GJ, Robertson SS, editors. Future directions in infant development research. New York, NY: Springer; 1991. pp. 43–70.Google Scholar
  22. Pryor J, Silva PA, Brooke M. Growth, development and behaviour in adolescents born small-for-gestational-age. J Paediatr Child Health 1995;31:403–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rush D, Stein Z, Susser M. A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation in New York City. Pediatrics. 1980;65:683–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sommerfelt K, Andersson HW, Sonnander K, Ahlsten G, Ellersten B, Markestad T, Jacobsen G, Hoffman HJ, Bakketeig L. Cognitive development of term small for gestational age children at five years of age. Arch Dis Child 2000;83:25–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Strauss RS. Adult functional outcome of those born small for gestational age: twenty-six-year follow-up of the 1970 British Birth Cohort. JAMA 2000;283:625–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Villar J, Smeriglio V, Martorell R, Brown CH, Klein RE. Heterogeneous growth and mental development of intrauterine growth-retarded infants during the first 3 years of life. Pediatrics. 1984;74:783–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Walker SP, Chang SM, Powell CA, Grantham-McGregor SM. Psychosocial intervention improves the development of term low-birth-weight infants. J Nutr. 2004;134:1417–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang WL, Sung YT, Sung FC, Lu TH, Kuo SC, Li CY. Low birth weight, prematurity, and paternal social status: impact on the basic competence test in Taiwanese adolescents. J Pediatr. 2008;153:333–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Epidemiology Research UnitTropical Medicine Research Institute, The University of the West IndiesMona, Kingston 7Jamaica

Personalised recommendations