The Importance of the Adiponectin and Leptin Relationship in In Utero and Infant Growth

Chapter

Abstract

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived, insulin-sensitizing, and anti-inflammatory cytokine that circulates in concentrations a thousand-fold greater than those of leptin or insulin. Leptin is a fat cell derived, 16 kDa protein that acts centrally to signal long-term energy stores to the brain and induces satiety by stimulating anorexigenic and inhibiting orexigenic neuropeptides. Adiponectin is measurable in cord serum by the 24th week of gestation, and concentrations rise 20-fold to term. Cord blood adiponectin values are significantly higher than those found in children and adults, in whom concentrations are inversely related to fat mass and body mass index, and, in contrast, correlate positively to birth weight, body mass index, and weight to length ratio. Umbilical cord leptin correlates positively with birth weight across the spectrum of fetal growth patterns. While placenta can secrete adiponectin, most of the adipokine appears to originate from fetal brown adipose tissue that forms by 14 weeks gestation. High molecular weight adiponectin, the presumed active isoform, correlates with leptin concentrations in cord blood. Lower leptin values in cord blood from small for gestational age babies may play a role in programming catch-up growth during infancy, while low levels of adiponectin in small for gestational age infants may contribute to childhood obesity and insulin resistance. The ratio of total adiponectin to leptin has been shown to correlate positively with weight gain from birth to mid-infancy.

Keywords

Obesity Mold Cortisol Adenosine Testosterone 

Abbreviations

ADIPOR1

Adiponectin receptor 1

AGA

Appropriate for gestational age

AgRP

Agouti-related protein

AMP kinase

5-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase

BAT

Brown adipose tissue

BMI

Body mass index

CART

Cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript

DEXA

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

ERK1/2

Extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2

F

Female

HMW

High molecular weight

IFN-γ

Interferon-gamma

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor 1

IL-1β

Interleukin-1 beta

IL-6

Interleukin-6

IUGR

Intrauterine growth retardation

JAK-STAT

Janus kinase-signal transducers and activator of transcription

LGA

Large for gestational age

LMW

Low molecular weight

M

Male

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

NFκβ

Nuclear factor kappa beta

NPY

Neuropeptide Y

OMIM

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man

PAI-1

Plasminogen activator inhibitor

PGE2α

Prostaglandin E2 alpha

POMC

Pro-opiomelanocortin

PPAR-γ

Peroxisomal proliferators-activated receptor-gamma

SD

Standard deviation

SDS

Standard deviation score

SEM

Standard error of the mean

SGA

Small for gestational age

TNF-α

Tissue necrosis factor-alpha

WAT

White adipose tissue

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric EndocrinologyDiabetes and Metabolism, All Children’s Hospital, University of South Florida College of MedicineTampaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric EndocrinologyDiabetes and Metabolism, University of South Florida College of MedicineTampaUSA
  3. 3.All Children’s HospitalSt. PetersburgUSA

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