Advertisement

Breast Volume Determination in Breast Hypertrophy

  • Laszlo Kovacs
  • Maximilian Eder
Chapter

Abstract

In the last few decades, several surgical techniques have been presented to decrease the symptoms of breast hypertrophy by removing a specific amount of breast tissue and reshaping the breast. Reliable and objective breast volume determination could be a helpful pre- and intraoperative assistance for the surgeon to achieve an aesthetic result, especially in breast asymmetry. But thus far no generally accepted method exists. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of classical techniques for breast volume determination (anthropomorphic measurements, conventional 2D radiological imaging, Archimedean methods, moulding techniques, measuring devices, modern radiological imaging) are critically analyzed and compared to an innovative alternative technique using 3D surface imaging. The technical background of 3D surface imaging is presented, underlining the reliability and accuracy of this innovative breast volume determination technique. Furthermore, a comparison of 3D surface imaging with the classical techniques of breast volume determination reveals the more comprehensible and transparent character of the 3D surface imaging method that permits a non-invasive, risk-free, non-contact, non-deformable patient assessment and delivers high-resolution 3D virtual, colored models of the breast region. Precise and accurate pre- and postoperative 3D quantitative calculations of shape, volume, surface changes, symmetry, projection, swelling tendency, contour and deformation are feasible. Finally, postoperative follow-up examinations at close intervals and optimizations of the preoperative surgical planning are possible. The clinical applications in the field of plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery show promising results, but further implementations in other related fields should be performed.

Keywords

Breast Volume Breast Region Breast Shape Optical Measurement System Ptotic Breast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

2D

Two dimensional

3D

Three dimensional

CT

Computer tomography

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

References

  1. Birtchnell S, Whitfield P, Lacey JH. Motivational factors in women requesting augmentation and reduction mammaplasty. J Psychosom Res. 1990;34:509–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blomqvist L, Eriksson A, Brandberg Y. Reduction mammaplasty provides long-term improvement in health status and quality of life. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;106:991–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bostwick, J. Breast reduction. In: Bostwick J, editor. Plastic and reconstructive breast surgery. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing; 1999. p. 371ff.Google Scholar
  4. Bouman FG. Volumetric measurement of the human breast and breast tissue before and during mammaplasty. Br J Plast Surg. 1970;23:263–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Breuckmann, B. Grundlagen der 3D-Messtechnik, Farbanalyse, Holografie und Interferometrie mit zahlreichen praktischen Applikationen, In: Breuckmann B, editor. Bildverarbeitung und optische Messtechnik in der industriellen Praxis. München: Franzis-Verlag GmbH; 1993.Google Scholar
  6. Brockmann G, Zimmermann A, Papadopulos NA, Papadopoulos NA, Kovacs L. Evaluation of applicability and accuracy of different surface scanning systems in medicine. J Biomech. 2006;39:S570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bulstrode N, Bellamy E, Shrotria S. Breast volume assessment: comparing five different techniques. Breast. 2001;10:117–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campaigne BN, Katch VL, Freedson P, Katch FI. Measurement of breast volume in females: description of a reliable method. Ann Hum Biol. 1979;6:363–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caruso MK, Guillot TS, Nguyen T, Greenway FL. The cost effectiveness of three different measures of breast volume. Aesth Plast Surg. 2006;30:16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eder M, Papadopulos NA, Kovacs L. Breast volume determination in breast hypertrophy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:356–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eder M, Schneider A, Feussner H, Zimmermann A, Papadopulos NA, Kovacs L. Breast volume assessment based on 3D surface geometry: verification of the method using MR imaging. Biomed Tech. (Berl). 2008;53:112–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Edsander-Nord A, Wickman M, Jurell G. Measurement of breast volume with thermoplastic casts. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 1996;30:129–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fowler PA, Casey CE, Cameron GG, Foster MA, Knight CH. Cyclic changes in composition and volume of the breast during the menstrual cycle, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990;97:595–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grossman AJ, Roudner LA. A simple means for accurate breast volume determination. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1980;66:851–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hudson DA. Factors determining shape and symmetry in immediate breast reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 2004;52:15–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kalbhen CL, McGill JJ, Fendley PM, Corrigan KW, Angelats J. Mammographic determination of breast volume: comparing different methods. Am J Roentgenol. 1999;173:1643–9.Google Scholar
  17. Kovacs L, Zimmermann A, Papadopulos NA, Biemer E. Re: factors determining shape and symmetry in immediate breast reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 2004;53:192–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kovacs L, Yassouridis A, Zimmermann A, Brockmann G, Wöhnl A, Blaschke M, Eder M, Schwenzer K, Rosenberg R, Papadopulos NA, Biemer E. Optimisation of the three-dimensional imaging of the breast region with 3D laser scanners. Ann Plast Surg. 2006a;56:229–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kovacs L, Eder M, Hollweck R, Zimmermann A, Settles M, Schneider A, Brockmann G, Schwenzer-Zimmerer K, Papadopulos NA, Biemer E. New aspects of breast volume measurement using 3D surface imaging. Ann Plast Surg. 2006b;57:602–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kovacs L, Eder M, Hollweck R, Zimmermann A, Settles M, Schneider A, Endlich M, Mueller A, Schwenzer-Zimmerer K, Papadopulos NA, Biemer E. Comparison between breast volume measurement using 3D surface imaging and classical techniques. Breast. 2007;16:137–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lee HY, Hong K, Kim EA. Measurement protocol of women’s nude breasts using a 3D scanning technique. Appl Ergon. 2004;35:353–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Losken A, Seify H, Denson DD, Paredes AA Jr, Carlson GW. Validating three-dimensional imaging of the breast. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;54:471–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Malini S, Smith EO, Goldzieher JW. Measurement of braest volume by ultrasound during normal menstruel cycles and with oral contraceptive use. Obstet Gynecol. 1985;66:538–41..PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Palin WE Jr, von Fraunhofer JA, Smith DJ Jr. Measurement of breast volume: comparison of techniques. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1986;77:253–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Penn J. Breast reduction. Br J Plast Surg. 1955;7:357–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Qiao Q, Zhou G, Ling Y. Breast volume measurement in young Chinese women and clinical applications. Aesth Plast Surg. 1997;21:362–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Smith DJ Jr, Palin WE Jr, Katch, VL, Bennett JE. Breast volume and anthropomorphic measurements: normal values. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1986;78:331–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Strömbeck JO, Malm M. Priority grouping in a waiting list of patients for reduction mammaplasty. Ann Plast Surg. 1986;17:498–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Westreich M. Anthropomorphic breast measurement: protocol and results in 50 women with aesthetically perfect breasts and clinical application. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;100:468–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wilkie T. Volumetric breast measurement during surgery. Aesth Plast Surg. 1977;1:301–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der IsarTechnische Universität MünchenMünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations