Anthropometry and the Knee Joint

  • A. J. Teichtahl
  • A. E. Wluka
  • Y. Wang
  • M. Flavia Cicuttini


Assessing how human anthropometry (i.e. measures of the size and proportions of the body) influences the knee has provided important information about risk factors for common arthropathies, such as osteoarthritis (OA). Nevertheless, until recently, there has been a paucity of data identifying associations between anthropometric measures and structural aberrations in the knee. This is likely to have resulted from difficulties in assessing knee structures. Previous studies have been largely reliant upon joint radiography to image the knee. Radiographs are limited and provide a two-dimensional assessment of a three-dimensional structure, without the ability to examine the non-radiographically opaque intra and extra-articular structures. New imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have enabled novel and sensitive opportunities to measure knee structures in vivo. MRI has helped to confirm OA to affect the whole joint, enabling a detailed examination of the relationship between human anthropometry and the knee. This chapter seeks to discuss how different dimensions of assessment of knee structure can be related to human anthropometry, and improve our understanding of factors affecting the risk and progression of knee OA. This may facilitate novel preventive strategies for the disease.


Cartilage Defect Joint Space Narrowing Cartilage Thickness Cartilage Volume Knee Alignment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





Body Mass Index


Bone marrow lesion


Joint space narrowing


Magnetic Resonance Imaging




World Health Organisation


  1. Abbate LM, Stevens J, Schwartz TA, Renner JB, Helmick CG, Jordan JM. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14:1274–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams JG, McAlindon T, Dimsai M, Carey J, Eustace S. Clin Radiol. 1999;54:502–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altman R, Brandt K, Hochberg M, Moskowitz R, Bellamy N, Bloch DA, Buckwalter J, Dougados M, Ehrlich G, Lequense M, Lohmander S, Murphy WA Jr, Rosario-Jansen T, Schwartz B, Trippel S. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 1996;4:217–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baranyay FJ, Wang Y, Wluka AE, English DR, Giles GG, Sullivan RO, Cicuttini FM. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2007;37:112–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beattie KA, Boulos P, Pui M, O’Neill J, Inglis D, Webber CE, Adachi JD. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2005;13:181–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boegard T, Rudling O, Dahlstrom J, Dirksen H, Petersson IF, Jonsson K. Ann Rheum Dis. 1999;58:20–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bruyere O, Genant H, Lothari M, Zaim S, White D, Peterfy C, Burlet N, Richy F, Ethgen D, Montague T, Dabrowski C, Reginster JY. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007;15:98–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buckland-Wright J, MacFarlane DG, Williams SA, Ward RJ. Ann Rheum Dis. 1995;54:872–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burgkart R, Glaser C, Hyhlik-Durr A, Englemeier KH, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:2072–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cicuttini F, Forbes A, Morris K, Darling S, Bailey M, Stuckey S. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 1999;7:265–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cicuttini F, Forbes A, Asbeutah A, Morris K, Stuckey S. J Orthop Res. 2000;18:580–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cicuttini FM, Wlukae AE, Wang Y, Davis SR, Hankin J, Ebeling P. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:554–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cicuttini FM, Jones G, Forbes A, Wluka AE. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004;63(9):1124–7.Google Scholar
  14. Cicuttini F, Ding C, Wluka A, Davis S, Ebeling PR, Jones G. Arthritis Rheum. 2005a;52:2033–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cicuttini F, Teichtahl A, Wluka A, Davis S, Strauss B, Ebeling P. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2005b;52:461–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Connolly A, Fitzpatrick D, Moulton J, Lee J, Lerner A. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2008;222:29–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ding C, Cicuttini F, Scott F, Glisson M, Jones G. Rheumatology. 2003;42:1317–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ding C, Cicuttini F, Scott F, Boon C, Jones G. Arthritis Rheum. 2005a;52:3918–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ding C, Cicuttini F, Scott F, Boon C, Jones G. Arthritis Rheum. 2005b;52:3918–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ding C, Cicuttini F, Scott F, Cooley H, Jones G. Obesity Res. 2005c;13:350–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ding C, Garnero P, Cicuttini F, Scott F, Cooley H, Jones G. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2005d;13:198–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ding C, Ciuttini F, Scott F, Cooley H, Boon C, Jones G. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:651–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ding C, Martel-Pelletier J, Pelletier JP, Abram F, Raynauld JP, Cicuttini F, Jones G. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9:R21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ding C, Martel-Pelletier J, Pelletier JP, Abram F, Raynaud JP, Cicuttini F, Jones G. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008;16:443–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Felson DT, Naimark A, Anderson J, Kazis L, Castelli W, Meenan RF. Arthritis Rheum. 1987;30:914–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Felson DR, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, Naimark A, Weissman B, Aliabadi P, Levy D. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40:728–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Felson DT, McLaughlin S, Goggins J, Lavalley MP, Gale ME, Totterman S, Li W, Hill0 C, Gale. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:330–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Fife RS, Brandt KD, Braunstein EM, Katz BP, Shelbourne KD, Kalasinski L, Ryan S. Arthritis Rheum. 1991;34:377–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gelber AC, Hochberg MC, Mead LA, Wang NY, Wigley FM, Klag MJ. Am J Med. 1999;107:542–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goulding A, Taylor RW, Jones IE, MCAULEY KA, Manning PJ, Williams SM. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:627–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Graichen HV, Eisenhart-Rothe R, Vogl T, Englmeier KH, Eckstein F. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:811–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gunther KP, Sun Y. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 1999;7:239–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guymer E, Baranyay F, Wluka AE, Hanna F, Bell RJ, Davis SR, Wang Y, Cicuttini FM. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007;15:1437–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hunter DJ, March L, Sambrook PN. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003;11:725–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hunter DJ, Niu J, Zhang Y, Nevitt MC, Xu L, Lui LY, Yu W, Aliabadi P, Buchanan TS, Felson DT. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:1418–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hunter DJ, Zhang Y, Niu J, Goggins J, Amin S, Lavalley MP, Guermazi A, Genant H, Gale D, Felson DT. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:1529–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Issa SN, Dunlop D, Chang A, Song J, Prasad PV, Guermazi A, Peterfy C, Caugue S, Marshall M, Kapoor D, Hayes K, Sharma L. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57:398–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jackson BD, Teichtahl AJ, Morris ME, Wluka AE, Davis SR, Cicuttini FM. Rheumatology. 2004;43:311–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Janakiramanan N, Teichtahl AJ, Wluka AE, Ding C, Jones G, Davis SR, Cicuttini FM. J Orthop Res. 2008;26:225–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones G, Glisson M, Hynes K, Cicuttini FM. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:2543–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jones G, Ding C, Glisson M, Hynes K, Ma D. Pediatrics Res. 2003;54:230–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jones H, Ding C, Scott F, Glisson M, Cicuttini FM. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2004;12:169–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Khan FA, Koff MF, Noiseux NO, Bernhardt KA, O’Byrne MM, Larson DR, Amrami KK, Kaufman KR. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:1961–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu B, Balkwill A, Banks E, Cooper C, Green J, Beral V. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:861–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marshall KW, Mikulis DJ, Guthrie BM. J Orthop Res. 1995;13:814–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McAlindon TE, Watt I, Mccrae F, Goddard P, Dieppe PA. Ann Rheum Dis. 1991;50:14–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mcgibbon CA, Trahan CA. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003;11:483–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Neogi T, Nevitt MC, Niu J, Sharma L, Roemer F, Guermazi A, Lewis C, Torner J, Javaid K, Felson D. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;17:17.Google Scholar
  49. Nieves JW, Formica C, Ruffing J, Zion M, Garrett P, Lindsay R, Cosman F. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:529–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nishimura K, Tanabe T, Kimura M, Harasawa A, Karita K, Matsushita T. J Orthop Sci. 2005;10:246–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Peterfy CG, Van Dijke CF, Janzen DL, Gluer CC, Namba R, Majumdar S, Lang P, Genant HK. Radiology. 1994;192:485–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Pilch L, Stewart C, Gordon D, Inman R, Parsons K, Pataki I, Stevens J. J Rheumatol. 1994;21:2307–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Ravaud P, Auleley GR, Chastang C, Rousselin B, Paolozzi L, Amor B, Dougados M. Br J Rheumatol. 1996;35:761–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Raynauld JP, Martel-Pelletier J, Berthiaume MJ, Labonte F, Beaudoin G, De Guise JA, Bloch DA, Choquette D, Haraoui B, Altman RD, Hochberg MC, Meyer JM, Cline GA, Pelletier JP. Arthritis Rheumatism. 2004;50:476–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, Lee RL, Lejeune E, Bruyere O, Giacovelli G, Henrotin Y, Dacre JE, Gossett C. Lancet. 2001;357:251–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Roemer FW, Neogi T, Nevitt MC, Felson DT, Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Lynch JA, Javaid MK, Crema MD, Torner J, Lewis CE, Guermazi A. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2009;10:10.Google Scholar
  57. Schouten JS, Van Den Ouweland FA, Valkenburg HA. Ann Rheum Dis. 1992;51:932–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sharma L, Lou C, Cahue S, Dunlop DD. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:568–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Spector TD, Harris PA, Hart DJ, Cicuttini FM, Nandra D, Etherington J, Wolman RL, Doyle DV. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39:988–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Teichtahl AJ, Davies-Tuck ML, Wluka AE, Jones G, Cicuttini FM. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2009;17:8–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vignon E, Piperno M, Le Graverand MP, Mazzuca SA, Brandt KD, Mathieu P, Favret H, Vignon M, Merle-Vincent F, Cnrozier T, Raynauld JP, Buckland-Wright C, Ward R, Choquette D, Haraoui B, Martel-Pelletier J, Uthman I, Khy V, Tremblay J, Bertrand C, Pelletier JP. Arthritis Rheumatism. 2003;48:378–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wang Y, Wlukae Ae, Cicuttini FM. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7:R687–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wang Y, Wluka AE, Davis SR, Cicuttini FM. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006;14:1258–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wang Y, Wluka AE, English DR, Teichtahl AJ, Giles GG, O’Sullivan R, Cicuttini FM. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66:1244–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Waterton JC, Solloway S, Foster JE, Keen MC, Gandy S, Middleton B, Maziewicz RA, Dieppe PA, Taylor CJ. Magn Reson Med. 2000;43:126–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wendelboe AM, Hegmann KT, Biggs JJ, Cox CM, Portmann AJ, Gildea JH, Gren LH, Lyon JL. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25:290–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wluka AE, Stuckey S, Snaddon J, Cicuttini FM. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:2065–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wluka AE, Wolfe R, Cicuttini FM. Annals Rheumatic Dis. 2004;36:264–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wluka AE, Wang Y, Davis SR, Cicuttini FM. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:1033–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wluka AE, Hanna F, Davies-Tuck M, Wang Y, Bell RJ, Davis SR, Adams J, Cicuttini FM. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:850–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wosje KS, Khoury PR, Clayton RP, Copeland KA, Kalkwarf HJ, Daniels SR. J Pediatr. 2009;154(79–85):e2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yoshimura N, Nishioka S, Kinoshita H, Hori N, Nishoka T, Ryujin M, Mantani Y, Miyake M, Coggon D, Cooper C. J Rheumatol. 2004;31:157–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Zanzettti M, Bruder E, Romero J, Hodler J. Radiology. 2000;215:835–40.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Teichtahl
  • A. E. Wluka
  • Y. Wang
  • M. Flavia Cicuttini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Population HealthMonash University, Alfred HospitalMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations