The Concept of Anthropometric Facial Asymmetry
Facial asymmetry is a common finding in healthy subjects and in esthetically pleasing faces. It is believed that normal craniofacial skeletons have some degree of asymmetry which is compatible with normal dental occlusion, and mild facial asymmetry is often disregarded by clinicians. In parallel with increasing demand for facial aesthetics and recent advances in facial aesthetic surgery, patients have become more sensitive to facial asymmetry which may occur after the operation. In this context, objective evaluation of facial asymmetry by extended facial analysis before and after the operation has gained importance. Facial asymmetry analysis can be performed as objective and/or subjective. Soft tissues of the face can be evaluated by subjective analysis; however, skeletal asymmetries compensated by the overlying soft tissue may not be recognized most of the time. Objective assessment of the asymmetry degree of both soft and hard tissues of the face before facial operations, aesthetic and orthodontic procedures in particular, will allow a more accurate analysis of the treatment results. Anthropometric measurement is one of the methods used for the quantitative analysis of facial asymmetry. Although anthropological studies on face have been extensively addressed in the literature, anthropologists have rarely examined facial asymmetry. The concept of facial asymmetry and anthropometric measurement of facial asymmetry will be reviewed in this chapter.
KeywordsDegenerative Joint Disease
Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis
Natural head position
We would like to thank Dr. Ilker Ercan for statistical support.
- Farkas LG. Anthropometry of the head and face in medicine. New York: Elsevier; 1981.Google Scholar
- Kohn, L, Cheverud, J. In: Vannier M, Yates R, Whitestone J, editors. Calibration, validation, and evaluation of scanning systems: anthropometric imaging system repeatability. Electronic Imaging of the Human Body Proceedings of a Working Group. Dayton, OH: CSERIAC; 1992, p. 114–23.Google Scholar
- Kolar JC, Salter EM. Craniofacial anthropometry. Practical measurement of the head and face for clinical, surgical and research use. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, USA; 1997, p. 213–30.Google Scholar
- Lele SR, Richtsmeier JT. An invariant approach to statistical analysis of shapes, New York: Chapman & Hall/CRC; 2000. p. 1–45.Google Scholar
- Naini FB, Gill DS. Dent Update. 2008;35:159–70.Google Scholar
- Stedman JK. Stedman’s medical dictionary, 28th edn. 2006. http://www.stedmans.com/.