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Bioelectrical Impedance to Predict Muscle Mass in the Elderly

  • Lars Ellegård
  • Marja Tengvall
Chapter

Abstract

In ageing, body composition changes gradually and will ultimately reduce function and health. In healthy elderly, deterioration of muscle mass and development of sarcopenia may be masked by weight stability. There is an increasing interest in specific estimation of skeletal muscle mass, as it may better reflect the body protein reserves and nutritional status in disease and aging. Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an easily performed and non-invasive indirect method to measure body composition based on the different conductive/resistive properties of body tissues. There are several prediction equations to estimate skeletal muscle mass by BIA. In the elderly, some of the assumptions in the impedance technique may be violated, and thus their validity must be assessed by a reference method in the population under study. Reference values for muscle mass in the elderly have been published based on both single-­frequency and impedance spectroscopy data. Impedance methods are suitable for measurement of muscle mass in the elderly because they are convenient and precise. This chapter presents various aspects of bioimpedance techniques to estimate muscle mass or muscle function in the elderly.

Keywords

Muscle Mass Skeletal Muscle Mass Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Body Cell Mass Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

BCM

Body cell mass

BF

Body fat, fatness percentage body fat

BFI

Body fat mass index

BIA

Bioelectrical impedance analysis

BIS

Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy

BIVA

Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis

BMC

Bone mineral content

BMI

Body mass index

DXA

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

ECW

Extracellular water

FM

Fat mass

FFM

Fat free mass

FFMI

Fat free mass index

ICW

Intracellular water

LSTM

Lean soft tissue mass

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

SMM

Skeletal muscle mass

SMMI

Skeletal muscle mass index

TBSMM

Total body skeletal muscle mass

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical NutritionSahlgrenska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of GothenburgGöteborgSweden

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