Anthropometry of Malnutrition in End Stage Liver Disease

  • E. T. Tsiaousi
  • A. I. Hatzitolios


One of the most common encountered clinical complications in end stage liver disease (ESLD) is macro- and micronutrient deficiency. Clinically evident malnutrition is strongly ­correlated with the degree of the disease progression reflected in the Child Pugh classification. The pathogenesis of malnutrition in ESLD is multifactorial. The use of anthropometry has provided us with an efficient but simple method for the assessment of malnutrition in cirrhosis. Most common anthropometric indices are triceps skinfold thickness (TST) and mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC). Both parameters are of great prognostic value and are recommended, along with subjective global assessment (SGA), by the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) for the evaluation of malnutrition in cirrhotic patients and patients awaiting liver transplantation.


Hepatitis Hydration Bromide Calorimetry Tritium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Body Cell Mass


Body Mass Index

CP classification

Child Pugh classification


End Stage Liver Disease


European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism


Free Fat Mass


Mid Arm Area


Mid Arm Circumference


Mid Arm Fat Area


Mid Arm Muscle Area


Mid Arm Muscle Circumference


Protein Energy Malnutrition


Resting Energy Expenditure


Subjective Global Assessment


Triceps Skinfold Thickness


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.1st Medical Propedeutic Department, AHEPA HospitalAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

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